Climate Change and Farmer’s Market

Did you know that the food that you eat travels an average of more than 1,500 miles to reach your plate? When you buy local food or products that were manufactured in your country or even more locally, you are helping your nation’s economy. You also are supporting farmers directly. Most importantly, you are also reducing how much pollution you are causing indirectly through consumption. Local consumption can really help reduce your greenhouse gas emissions and your impact.

Shopping locally and getting involved in your local community has certainly been in the spotlight in recent years as environmental issues have come to the fore. The connection between going local and going green is easy to see by connecting with the things nearby to us, we’re supporting our local environment rather than looking further afield for our needs. This means less CO2 emissions, a greener local area and a better approach to tackling the onset of climate change.

This is perhaps why farmers’ markets have grown in popularity in recent years, in towns, villages, and cities across the country especially in US, springing up even in the most unlikely of places. We need farmer market in Pakistan as farmers’ markets epitomize the ‘think local’ ideal, bringing locally grown and sourced produce to consumers, ensuring low food miles and less CO2 emissions.

The Growth Of Farmers’ Markets

Farmers and local producers bring food and other items directly to the consumer, cutting out the middleman. All items sold need to have been produced, grown or caught by the seller, and within a localized radius, which means you can be assured of its local origins. The great thing about farmers’ markets is that you can ask the seller about the product and be sure of an honest and accurate answer about what’s in it, or where it comes from.

Farmers’ Markets Are Good For The Local Economy

Farmers’ markets, by bringing local items to the local community, helps keep money circulating in the local area, which is good for other businesses and operations in the area. By making farmers’ markets a regular occurrence, the surrounding amenities flourish too, including local shops and other facilities.

Farmers’ Markets Are Good For Consumers

Not only are farmers’ markets convenient and easy to get to they’re local, so cut out the need for consumers to use a car to travel there they are also good value for money for customers. Because farmers’ and local producers are able to cut out the middleman (shops and supermarkets and other suppliers) they are able to give you a better deal and still make a healthy profit themselves. Plus, there’s always the opportunity for some bartering over the market stalls to help you secure a bargain!

Farmers’ Markets Help Lower Food Miles

Food miles are the total number of miles a product or ingredient has had to travel before it ends up in your shopping bag. The more miles it has to travel, the less fresh it will be, and the more CO2 its journey to you will have warranted. Because farmers’ markets work on the premise of local foods, you’ll be buying into as low a food mile quota as possible, and also guaranteeing fresher food on your plate.

Climate Change Becomes More Complex

The herder who loses one or two cows to famine amid a drought may feel he has little choice but to sell other livestock at very low prices the only prices he can get to keep his family fed. The family may survive the crisis, but they will have lost productive economic assets they relied on, assets that had paid for the children to attend school and were helping the family move out of poverty. The children lose the advantage of an education, the herder has lost an economic base to build from, and he becomes less likely to take risks that could increase his income. Escaping the poverty trap becomes more difficult, and the effects can extend for generations.

Governments can help poor families get through climate shocks with more of their assets intact and build resilience to longer term climate changes while also working to reduce the drivers of climate change.

Experts in poverty and climate change at the World Bank Group are working with researchers around the world this year to help develop policy guidance and recommendations that can help.To end poverty requires action on both poverty and climate change quickly.

“Climate change represents a direct and immediate threat to poverty alleviation. It’s important that we bring the climate and poverty communities together to design interventions that are effective for both,” said Marianne Fay, the World Bank Group’s chief economist for climate change.

Four clear issues are opening those conversations:

1) Climate change is an obstacle to ending extreme poverty.

The poor – both those living in poverty and those just barely above the poverty line – are already the most at risk from climate change. They have the fewest resources to adapt or recover quickly from shocks, and they often live on the most vulnerable land because it tends to be the most affordable, such as homes along creeks that flood or on hillsides prone to landslides, or farmland with limited water access.

The damage extreme weather can do their homes and businesses can prevent the poor from escaping poverty, and it is often the trigger that tips the vulnerable into poverty.

2) Climate policies benefit the poor over the long-term and can benefit the poor in the short-term when accompanied by appropriate social policies.

Climate policies designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions can increase the cost of energy, but they can also generate or free up public finances to help the poor in more targeted ways.

Several Countries are now working on subsidy reform. When Indonesia began phasing out fossil fuel subsidies and raised gas prices by 44 percent, it also introduced programs to mitigate the effect of higher energy prices through subsidized rice, free health care, cash assistance to poor students and a one-year conditional cash transfer targeting poor households with pregnant women or school-age children.

3) Creating strong, flexible social safety nets can catch the poor before they fall into poverty.

One clear message from the research across climate change and poverty is that reducing the impact of climate change on poverty requires strengthening the social protection system to make programs scalable and targeted to those in need.

An effective social protection system is one flexible enough to be scaled up quickly in times of crisis.

Beyond emergency support, effective social protection systems help increase access to basic services for the poor, to health care, and to financial services such as loans to help rebuild or build businesses.

4) We have a window of opportunity to reduce poverty now.

As the impacts of climate change worsen, it will become harder to eliminate poverty. That leaves a narrow window for ending extreme poverty and putting in place the safety nets that can keep poverty at bay while countries also work to lower their emissions toward net zero. The work underway right now, with a goal of ending extreme poverty by 2030, can help governments lead the way on combating climate change while also working to improve the lives and futures of the least well-off in their countries.

Water Crisis in Pakistan

“Water is precious, use it wisely” says a notice placed in the bathroom of a five star hotel. There could not be a sounder piece of advice but it should be given not only to the guests of the five star hotels but also to the entire citizenry of Pakistan. Pakistan is rapidly moving to the situation when it will begin to be ranked among the countries that have severe shortages of fresh water. Wise use of this precious resource is one way of dealing with this crisis.

Man is a pre-eminently an animal good at gadgets. Man uses water much in the same way as other animals; he has to drink it constantly, washes in it frequently, and drowns in it occasionally – probably oftener than other terrestrial vertebrates. Without water, he dies as miserably as any other beast and with too much of it, as in floods, he is equally unable to cope. However, he excels other animals in that he has learned to utilize waterpower.
There are three basic uses of water in the modern civilization– agriculture, industry and human consumption. Using water wisely in these three uses is one way of saving the country from economic and social disaster.

Water is one of the most important natural resource and the major driving force for the economy of Pakistan. Only a few decades ago, Pakistan was considered to have abundance of good quality water. Now, however, in many other area of the world, population growth, economic development, rapid urbanization and industrialization, are applying continuous pressure on the already limited water resources of Pakistan.

Pakistan is now towards a serious shortage of water. In 1951, per capita surface water availability for irrigation was estimated at 5650 cubic metres; this declined sharply to only 1350 cubic metres per head in 2002. The minimum amount that should be available is 1000 cubic metres. 2012, Pakistan will have reached the stage of “acute water shortage”.

 CURRENT SITUATION IN PAKISTAN:

 WORLD BANK REPORT:
• Pakistan has exhausted its current water capability and needs to take immediate measure to sustain its water-driven economy.
• Pakistan only stores 30 days of river water. India stores 120 to 220 days, Colorado River in the US stores 900 days.
• Pakistan’s per capita water storage is just 150 cubic meters while that of China is 2200, Australia 5000 and the US is 5000.
Pakistan’s economy can only be propelled into future only through building new water projects and canals.

WATER VISION 2016:

President Musharraf said, “Water and energy are matters of life and death for us. We have to build all dams. We have lagged far behind and have to work at a fast pace to catch up with the rest of the world.”

We are facing an existing water shortage by 9 million-acre feet and by 2020 this short fall will be up to 20 maf. Constructing two to three dams is inevitable for us by the year 2020. By building mega water reservoirs our canals will become perennial and no longer be seasonal. New reservoirs will generate 10000 mw of power, which would certainly bring down the rate of electricity. One dam will bring an additional 2 maf of water to Sindh, two dams will fetch 4 maf and another dam will bring water equal to storage capacity of Mangla Dam.

Apart from Diamer-Bhasha and Kalabagh, the water vision envisages construction of Akori, Munda and Kuram Tungi Dams by the year 2016.

 NEED FOR THE DAMS:

Tariq Hameed, Chairman Wapda says,“Pakistan is fortunate that nature has bestowed it with abundant water reservoirs. It is now up to us to harness these resources for the economic development and prosperity of the people of Pakistan.”

1) Presently, out of total cultivable land of 77.1 million acres, we are only cultivating 54.5 million acres because of shortage of water.
2) With the increase in population, Pakistan will have a shortfall of 11 million tons of major food grains by 2010 and 16 million tons by 2020. This food grain deficit will increase to 28 million tons by 2025.
3) High power tariff burdening consumers can be reduced by correcting hydel-thermal generation ratio of 30-70, which used to be the opposite in 1970.
4) Only 14 % of Pakistan’s total hydropower potential of 50,000 mw being tapped at present.
5) Average hydel generation unit cost for new projects is Rs. 1.00/KWH against Rs. 7.00/KWH for new oil based thermal generation.
6) Pakistan’s electricity demand and increasing by 7 % per annum.
7) Agriculture is the backbone of Pakistan’s economy; 23.3 % of GDP.
8) 64 % Pakistanis depend on agriculture.
9) 60-70 % of exports depend on it.

10) Pakistan today is among one of the world’s fastest growing populations now estimated at over 150 million. Due to the lack of large river regulation capability through sizable storages, the country is facing serious shortages in food grains. Given the present trend, Pakistan could soon become one of the food deficit countries in the near future. Therefore, there is a dire need to build storages for augmenting agriculture production. Tarbela, Mangla and Chashma reservoirs have already lost about 5 maf due to sedimentation. It is estimated that by the year 2012, this loss would increase to the original combined capacity of Mangla and Chashma reservoirs.

11) Industrial expansion and growth essential for economic development and prosperity.
12) It will provide the better clean environment for the human beings.
13) Reduction in barren lands.
14) To control flooding and manage rivers.
15) The completion by India of Wuller, Buglihar and Krishenganga, Uri-11 Pakaldul and Burser projects on the western rivers of Indus, Jehlum and Chenab to which Pakistan has the exclusive right according to the 1960 Indus Basin Water Treaty, will also create serious water shortage.

NEED FOR RESERVOIRS:
1) Hydropower Generation

High power tariff, which is a burden on consumer, can be reduced by correcting hydel thermal generation ratio of 30-70, which used to be the opposite in 1970. Only 40% of Pakistan’s total hydro power potential of 50000MW is being tapped at present. Average hydel generation cost for new projects is Rs 1.007/Kwh as against Rs 7/Kwh for new oil base thermal generation. Pakistan’s electricity demands are increasing by 7% per annum.

Saving import of fuel for thermal power plants reduce cost of electrically i.e. Rs1/Kwh. Electrification of industries of towns and villages. Reduces cost of electricity help manufacturers.

2) Agriculture
Agriculture forms the backbone of Pakistan’s economy. 23.3% of GDP, 64% Pakistanis depend directly on agriculture. 60-70% exports depend on it. Water is a life line for agriculture. Average rainfall of Pakistan is below Avg. Thus, water storage is needed for agriculture as it is a precious resource and we should not waste a drop of it.

Out of Pakistan total geographical area only 17.1Macre is suitable for agriculture. A total of 44.4Macres of agriculture land is irrigated besides only 10Macres Barani land under cultivation. If water is available the remaining 22.6Macres of land(29% of total suitable area for agriculture) can turn productive if no additional water is tapped. It means that 1/3 of agriculture potential will remain untapped.

3) Industry
4) Drinking Water And Sanitation

Pakistan’s population is increasing by over 2% per year requiring availability of more clean drinking water. Cities, towns, Villages expanding requiring more water for sanitation purposes.
Implementation of clean drinking water schemes possible with availability of more water.

5) Environment

Better clean environment for humans. Reduction in barren land. Controlled rivers and canals.
More land area under cultivation, greenery and habitation to improve better water management and cleanliness. More forests and eco system preservation and flood control.

 

 

ڪِرندڙ يا اُڀرندڙ پاڪستاني معيشت

ڪنهن به ملڪ جي ترقي جو انحسار اتي جي معيشت تي هوندو آهي. قدرتي وسيلن سان مالامال پاڪستان پرڳڻو اقتصادي ڏيوالپڻي جو شڪار آهي. ڪنهن ڏاهي انسان خوب چيو آهي ته جيستائين حڪومتي سطح تي سڌارا نه ايندا تيستائين سماجي ۽ اقتصادي ترقي اڻٽر آهي. ڪنهن به ملڪ ۾ اقتصادي ترقي جو مقصد اهو ئي آهي ته ملڪ مان بيروزگاري جو خاتمو ٿيئي، غربت جو خاتمو ٿيئي، وڌندڙ مهنگائي تي قابو ڪجي،  وسيلن جي ورڇ منصافاڻي اصولن تحت ٿيئي، تعليمي معيار سٺو هجي، اسپتالن جي حالت سٺي هجي، عام ماڻهو کي صاف پيئڻ لاءِ پاڻي وافر مقدار ۾ ميسر هجي مطلب ته هر اهي بنيادي ضرورتون هجڻ گهرجن جيڪي هڪ عام ماڻهو جي زندگي کي بهتر ۽ سولي ڪرڻ ۾ ڪارآمد هونديون آهن. هوند جيڪڏهن اهي سڀ جائز حق انسان کي ملي وڃن ته ملڪ مان بدامني، گناهه، ڪرائيم، چوري، دهشتگردي تي ڪافي حد تائين گهٽتائي اچي سگهي ٿي.  
پاڪستان جي اقتصادي صورتحال ڪا مطئمن بخش يا واکاڻ جوڳي نه آهي. ڇو ته ملڪ ۾ اٽڪل 35 سيڪڙو ماڻهو اهڙا آهن جيڪي پنهنجي زندگي غربت جي لڪير جي هيٺ بسر ڪندا آهن. 25 ملين ٻار تعليم جي زيور کان محروم آهن. عام ماڻهو جي زندگي بک ۽ بدحالي جي ور چڙهيل آهي. نوجوانن جو وڏو انگ بيروزگاري جي عالم ۾ زندگي گذارڻ تي مجبور آهي. عورتن کي تعليم جي بدران چار ديواري اندر قيد ڪيو ويو آهي. انهن کي اقتصادي ترقي ۾ پنهنجو حصو ونڊڻ جو موقعو ئي نٿو ڏنو وڃي. اڻ سڌي ٽيڪس جي شرح ڏينهون ڏينهن وڌي رهي آهي.
ڪنهن زماني ۾ زراعت ماڻهن جي روزگار جو وڏي مان وڏو ۽ اهم ذريعو هوندو هو پر هاڻي لڳي ائين پيو ته اهو ذريعه معاش جو وسيلو ختم ٿيندي پيو نظر اچي. اُهي زرعي زمينون جيڪي 25 يا 30 سال پهرين تمام گهڻي مقدار ۾ ان يا ٻيا فصل اپائينديون هيون، هاڻي اُهي ويران ٿي ويون آهن ۽ اتي صرف مٽي ۽ دز جا وسڪارا آهن. اِهو سڀ ان جي ڪري ته انهن علائقن ۾ پاڻي جي موجودگي ناپيد ٿي ويئي آهي. انسان کي پئيڻ لاءِ پاڻي نٿو ملي ته پوءِ زراعت لاءِ ڪٿان ملندو. موجوده صورتحال  جو مشاهدو ڪري اسان مستقبل جي اقتصادي صورتحال جو ڪاٿو لڳائي سگهون ٿا ته ڪهڙي صورتحال ٿي سگهي ٿي. پر تنهن هوندي به اسان کي ڀرپور ڪوششون وٺڻ گهرجن موجوده اقتصادي صورتحال کي بهتر ڪرڻ لاءِ.
اسان زرعي دور، ان کانپوءِ صنعتي دور مان نڪري هاڻي ڪميونيڪيشن ۽ ٽيڪنالاجي جي دور ۾ بيٺا آهيون. اڄ جي دور ۾ سڄي معيشت جو دارومدار ڪيمونيڪيشن ۽ ٽيڪنالاجي تي دارومدار رکي ٿي جنهن ملڪ وٽ جديد دور جي ٽيڪنالاجي آهي اهو ئي هن دور جو قوي ۽ طاقتور ملڪ آهي. اهو ملڪ اقتصادي، لساني، توڙي ٻين حوالن سان سگهارو ثابت ٿيندو. موجوده دور ۾ جيڪڏهن اسان آمريڪا ڏانهن نظر ڦيرايون ته اهو دنيا جو امير ترين ملڪ آهي آمريڪين جديد ٽيڪنالاجي ۾ گذريل پنجن يا ڇهن ڏاهڪن ۾ بيپناهه ترقي ڪئي آهي. ٽيڪنالاجي ۽ ڪميونيڪيشن ۾ ڪارنامن جي ڪري ئي اڄ آمريڪا دنيا جو سپرپاور آهي.
پاڪستان ۽ پاڪستان جهڙا ٻيا ترقي پذير ملڪ جديد ٽيڪنالاجي جي اوائلي دور مان گذرن پيا جيڪڏهن اسانکي آمريڪا جهڙي سگهاري معيشت گهرجي ته پوءِ اسان کي جديد ٽيڪنالاجي ۽ تحقيق جي ميدان ۾ بيپناهه ڪارنامه سرانجام ڏيئڻا پوندا.  
 هاڻي وقت اچي ويو آهي ته هڪ اهڙي معيشت جو بنياد  وڌو وڃي جيڪا سڀني انسانن لاءِ برابري جا موقعا فراهم ڪري ۽ سڀني کي هڪجهڙو فائدو پهچائي. صرف امير ترين طبقي لاءِ نه پر سڀني انسانن لاءِ هجي. ڇو ته بنيادي ضروتون امير توڙي غريب جون هڪجهڙيون آهن. امير ته پنهنجين ضرورتن کي پورو ڪرڻ ۾ پريشاني ڪونهي هوندي پر زياده تر غريب ئي اقتصادي مسئلن جو شڪار ٿيندا آهن.   
نين اندازن مطابق، صرف دنيا جي اٺ ماڻهن وٽ ايتري دولت آهي جيتري دنيا جي غريب ترين اڌ آبادي وٽ آهي. معاشي ترقي جتي امير ترين طبقي کي فائدو پهچائي ٿي انهي معاشري جي باقي ماڻهن لاءِ خاص طور تي غريب طبقي لاءِ وڌيڪ مشڪلاتن جو باعث ٿيئي ٿي. موجود معيشت جي ساخت ۽ قوانين اسانکي ناانصافي ۽ انتهائي غيرمستحڪم صورتحال ۾ متبلا ڪري ڇڏيو آهي. ضرورت ان امر جي آهي ته اهو طبقو جنهن کي مختلف مراعاتن سان نوازيو ويندو آهي انهن جي مراعتن کي بند ڪيو وڃي ۽ هڪ اهڙو معاشي نظام جو بنياد وڌو وڃي جيڪو سڀني لاءِ يڪسوئي ۾ عمل پيرا هجي نه بلڪ صرف امير طبقي لاءِ. مزدورن ۽ هارين کي انهن جي ڪم جي نوعيت تحت اجورو ڏنو وڃي، عورتن جي حقن جو تحفط ڪيو وڃي انهن کي پڻ ڪاروبار  ۽ نوڪرين ڪرڻ جا برابر موقعا ڏنا وڃن ۽ انصاف تي ٻڌل ٽيڪس جي نظام کي مظبوط ڪيو وڃي.
چار سال پهرين عالمي اقتصادي فورم ان ڳالهه جي نشاندهي ڪري چڪو آهي ته معاشي ناانصافي وڌندڙ سماجي استحڪام جي لاءِ هڪ تمام وڏو خطرو آهي. دنيا جا ڪيترائي ادار امير ۽ غريب جي وچ ۾ وڌندڙ اڻبرابري واري وڌندڙ خليج کي ختم ڪرڻ جي ڪوششن ۾ رڌل آهن پر انهن ڪوششن جي باوجود نتيجا ڪي سازگار نه نڪتا آهن. بلڪ خليج ڏينهون ڏينهن وڌندي پئي وڃي. آمريڪا جي پراڻي صدر اوباما سيپٽمبر 2016 ۾ الوداعي تقريب دوران اقوام متحده جي جنرل اسيمبلي ۾ چيو هو ته ”هڪ اهڙي دنيا ڪڏهن به مستحڪم نٿي ٿي سگهي جنهن دنيا ۾ انسانيت جي هڪ سيڪڙي وٽ ايترو مال ۽ دولت آهي جيڪو دنيا جي 99 سيڪڙو ماڻهن وٽ آهي.“
دنيائي سطح تي وڌندڙ طبقاتي تفريق ٽين دنيا جي ملڪن کي وڌيڪ نقصان رسايو آهي.جنهن ۾ پاڪستان به شامل آهي. پاڪستان ۾ 44 اهڙا خاندان موجود آهن جنهن وٽ اربين روپين جي دولت آهي مثال طور ميان محمد منشا جي دولت تقريبن 2.5 بلين آمريڪي ڊالر آهي، ان کان پوءِ آصف علي زرداري جنهن جي دولت 1.8 بلين آمريڪي ڊالر آهي، ۽ ان کانپوءِ ٽين نمبر تي سر انور پرويز جنهن جي دولت 1.5 بلين آمريڪي ڊالر آهي، ڇوٿين نمبر تي ميان محمد نواز شريف ۽ شهباز شريف جنهن جي دولت 1.4 بلين آمريڪي ڊالر آهي. ائين ٻيا ڪيترائي امير ماڻهو رهن ٿا پاڪستان ۾ جنهن جي دولت اربين کربين روپيا آهي. باقي گهڻائي انهن ماڻهن جي آهي جيڪي پنهنجي زندگي غربت جي لڪير کان گهٽ زندگي گذارڻ تي مجبور آهن.  
آڪسفيم جي هڪ رپورٽ موجب ايندڙ 20 سالن جي دوران 500 امير ترين ماڻهو 2.1 ٽريلين ڊالر جي ملڪيت پنهنجن وارثن جي حوالي ڪندا. اها رقم 1.3 ارب آبادي واري ملڪ انڊيا جي، جي ڊي پي کان به زياده آهي. ان کان علاوه اڳتي غريب ۽ امير جي فرق کي واضح ڪرڻ لاءِ رپورٽ ٻڌائي ٿي ته 1988 ۽ 2011 جي وچ ۾ غريب ترين ماڻهن جي 10 سيڪڙو آمدني ۾ صرف ٽن ڊالرن جو ساليانه اضافو ٿيو آهي جڏهن ته امير ترين هڪ سيڪڙي جي آمدني ۾ 183 دفعا وڌي آهي. رپورٽ جي مطابق ويٽنام ۾ هڪ اميرترين ماڻهو هڪ ڏينهن ۾ ايترو ڪمائي ٿو جيڪو غريب ترين ماڻهو ڏهن سالن ۾ به نٿو ڪمائي سگهي. اڻبرابري ۽ ناانصافي جي اوچائي ڏسو اهي سڀ مسئلا عالمي معاشي تبديلين جي ڪري ٿيا آهن. ان کان علاوه نيولبرلزم جي تصور عالمي اقتصادي معيار کي ئي تبديل ڪري ڇڏيو آهي. جنهن فري مارڪيٽ جو تصور ڏيئي امير ماڻهن کي هڪ رستو فراهم ڪري ڇڏيو آهي ته جيئن اهي غريب جي خون جي بدلي پنهنجي ملڪيت جا انبار ٺاهين.