Municipal solid waste is generally a type of waste consisting of everyday items discarded by the public excluding agricultural waste, industrial waste, medicinal waste etc. MSW is known by different names in different regions e.g. in the United States it is known as “TRASH” and “GARBAGE” while known as “REFUSE” and “RUBBISH” in Great Britain.

Lahore is 2nd largest metropolitan of Pakistan, the provincial capital of Punjab with more than 11 million individuals over an area of 1772 km2. About 5000-6000 tons of waste is produced daily in Lahore and only 60-65% is collected, and reaming 35-40% is left unhandled.

Characterization of MSW is the first step towards integrated waste management. It helps by giving information about which type of waste is being discarded and in which proportion and It also helps policymakers to design newer and effective policies for better waste management. In waste characterization Generation Rate, Composition, Density, Moisture content, Loss of mass on ignition and Calorific value are mainly focused.

Composition of MSW changes from municipality to municipality and time to time. Globally, MSW contains 38.1% paper, 13.4%-yard waste, 10.4% plastics, 9.4% food waste, 7.7% metals, 5.9% wood, 5.2% glass and 9.9% other materials.In Lahore MSW contains 72.76% biodegradable waste, 5.58% nylon, 5.35% diapers, 4.71% textile, 3.83% combustible material, 3.42% non-combustible material, 2.34% paper & cardboard, 0.77% tetra packs, 0.45% plastics, 0.43% glass, 0.18% hazardous waste, 0.08% pet, 0.05% electronic waste and 0.04% metals.

Social and economic factors also influence the composition because of difference in lifestyle, waste production etc. Low-income areas mainly contain a higher proportion of biodegradable waste while higher income area contains a higher proportion of biodegradable waste, diapers, pet, packaging material etc.

In order to properly manage MSW, all stockholders must perform their duties in an effective manner. We must change our lifestyle. We must adopt 3R’s as best solution for effective management of MSW. We must use reusable bags instead of using single use plastic bags. We must avoid individually wrapped items at the store and promote recyclable materials. We must consider composting scraps and food waste rather than throwing it away. Zero waste policy is an effective approach to tackle solid waste problems and it must be implemented in educational institutions, industries, government and private office. Government and other institutions associated with waste management e.g. LWMC, Albayrak, Ozpak etc. must improve their strategy of waste collection by increasing institutional capacity, joining hands with NGO’s working on the ground, this will help is increasing ratio of collected waste. The government must focus on providing plastic bags for effective waste collection. Multimedia (electronic and press) ads and training seminars are effective approached to indulge targeted audience to aware people regarding proper waste management.

South Asia and Climate Change

Climate change is one of the greatest threats the world is facing today. There is a scientific consensus that the earth is warming up and climate change is happening everywhere. Although the issue is a global phenomenon, the impacts of it will not be felt in equal proportion across the world. It is irrefutable that the impacts are likely to differ in both magnitude and rate of changes in different continents, countries, and regions. South Asian countries are facing negative impacts of climate change on their lives and livelihoods. The fourth report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) and first assessment report of Indian network of climate change Assessment (INCCA) confirm that climate change is likely to increase the frequency and intensity of climate-related hazards and also the emergence of new catastrophes that could manifest in the form of sea level rise and new vulnerabilities with various spatial and socio-economic impacts on communities.

In South Asia, glaciers of the Himalayas have the largest storage of ice outside the polar region. Melting of this reserve is the source of some of the world’s biggest rivers. In the rainy seasons, these glacial melts, coupled with heavy rain, may cause flood which hampers the lives and livelihoods of the people of the region.

Even small climate-related hazard can cause irreversible damage to a large number of people. The region also suffers from a large number of natural disasters. Over the past forty years, South Asian countries faced as many as 1,333 disasters that killed 980,000 people, affected 2.4 billion lives and damaged assets worth US$105 billion. From 1990 to 2008, more than 750 million people were affected by natural disasters which caused the death of about 60,000 people and about US$ 45 billion in damages.


The low-lying areas of South Asia or large deltas and coastal areas of the region could be drowned by sea level rise. Climate change has affected the agriculture of Bangladesh that forced people to migrate from rural to urban areas. Cyclone ‘Aila’ hit Bangladesh in 2009 which forced 200,000 people of Southwestern part to migrate from homes and the damage totaled US$269.28 million. Under the current trends of climate change, per capita, water availability in 2025 will become 7,670 cubic meters against 12,162 cubic meters in 1991. Such reduction will affect the huge population of Bangladesh during the dry season while the current availability is already very low in the country.Such complex changes will have adverse impacts on the agricultural system and food production of the country.

  • INDIA:

India is also one of the major victims of climate change. By one estimate, climate change will cause a 30-40 percent drop in India’s agricultural output by 2080.It is projected that under the scenario of 2.5°c to 4.9°c temperature rise, rice yields will drop by 32-40 percent and wheat yields by 41-52 percent and this would cause Gross Domestic Product (GDP) to fall by 1.8-3.4 percent. A World Bank study reveals that about 700 million people of India will be forced to migrate from rural to urban areas due to the adverse impact of climate change on agriculture.Climate change may cause a rise of up to 4°c in surface air temperature by 2100 and a rising number of extreme weather events, such as droughts, floods, and cyclones in India.Furthermore, anomalies in global climate pattern pose a serious threat to the urban water supply of India. According to IPCC, by the year 2030, Himalayan glaciers will shrink from 500,000 km2 to 100,000 km2 affecting north Indian rivers where 50 percent of the water comes from snow melt.


Pakistan has an area of over 88 million hectares which includes a variety of landscape ranging from high mountain ranges to stark deserts. Climate change could make the country more vulnerable to natural disasters. Climate change in Pakistan is expected to increase glacial melt, sea level rise along its coast and increase periods without precipitation. Due to various climate related disasters in past 40 years, the total death toll exceeds 90,000 and total recorded losses from disaster amounted to US$20 billion, including the US$10 billion losses caused by the 2010 flood.According to a study, by 2020, the temperature in Pakistan is expected to increase by 0.9°c doubling to 1.8°c by 2050. Scenarios for sea level rise include 20 cm by 2020 and 30 cm by 2050. The Indus River and its tributaries dissect the country, providing a source of the world’s largest contiguous irrigation network.In Pakistan, potentially huge and rapid reductions in Indus’ flows, coupled with intensified droughts and sea level rise, will require major livelihood transitions and economic transformation with consequent risks of social upheaval.


Sri Lanka is also vulnerable to the effects of global climate change as major parts of the country will be submerged with rise in sea level. Climate change will bring dire consequences for the country for water, agriculture, health and coastal regions. As there are early signs of impacts, there are strong possibilities to reach serious proportions by 2025.Therefore, any adverse changes in already volatile weather patterns are likely to impact on the socio-economic activities of the country.In case of climate change, Sri Lanka might experience widespread effects, including climate variability and sea level rise, directly affecting the overall abundance and security of endemic species within the country.


Maldives is also at a high stake of global climatic change. The country consists of about 1,200 islands on the Indian Ocean. Asian Development Bank Economic Report for South Asia revealed that if the climate change would not be checked, Maldives would face losses of over 12 percent of its GDP by the end of this century and 1-meter sea level rise would inundate 66 percent of the archipelago’s land area which would affect tourism industry, the lifeline of the country’s economy.The natural beauty and tourism industry of Maldives is mainly centered on its beautiful sea beach, which represents 5 percent of the country’s total land area. It is to be noted that more than 97 percent inhabitants of islands reported beach erosion in 2004, of which 64 percent reported severe erosion and more than 45percent of the tourists have also reported about severe erosion.In the long run, climate change will threaten the entire country’s existence. The highest point of the country is 8 feet above sea level.Therefore; the country will be severely affected by global sea level rise. Along with rising sea levels, increased beach erosion, more powerful storms, higher storm surges and threats to biodiversity are among the major threats to the Maldives due to climate change over the coming decades.

  • NEPAL:

Nepal is a country of diverse climatic conditions, ranging from tropical in the south to alpine in the north. The country is facing problems like drought and flooding and there are possibilities that these will be magnified by climate change in future. In 1999, temperatures were increasing in Nepal and rainfall was becoming more variable. A decade later, in 2009, a modeling exercise conducted by a team of Nepali, American, British, Pakistani and Bangladeshi experts using the emissions scenarios in the IPCC’s special report (2007), found that the temperature would indeed increase in the mid-hills and the region was likely to grow more arid in non-monsoon seasons. It also suggested that precipitation was likely to be more uncertain and that storm intensity would increase.


Bhutan is part of the Eastern Himalayan region which contains part of three global biodiversity hotspots, 60 ecoregions, 330 bird areas, 53 important plant areas, a large number of wetlands and 29 Ramsar sites. Bhutan is a country of diverse array of flora and fauna including 5,603 species of vascular plants, 400 lichens, 200 mammals and about 700 birds.In future, climate change is likely to affect Bhutan in various ways e.g., changes in hydrological cycles may affect present level of drinking water of the country. As 80 percent of Bhutanese practice subsistence farming, climate change can cause changes in temperature which will increase the vulnerability of a large group of this population.In addition, climate change will affect forests, biodiversity as well as human health badly with increasing number of natural disasters.


Afghanistan is the last country to join SAARC in 2007. The country is mountainous and very dry which has an arid and semi-arid continental climate with cold winters and hot summers. Due to climate change, Afghanistan is currently suffering from droughts. Available data and trends from neighboring countries indicate that mean annual temperature has increased by 0.6 °c since 1960, at an average rate of around 0.13 °c per year.

According to the IPCC report, people living in developing countries in low altitudes, particularly those along the coast of Asia will suffer the most. Some small island states are expected to face very high impacts. Hence, countries like Bangladesh and Maldives have possibilities to become worst sufferers. The consequences of climate change will be drastic for the region as about 70 percent of South Asians lives in rural areas and account for about 75 percent of the poor, who are the most impacted segments by climate change.

Can You Swim In A Sea Of Plastic?

Plastic pollution is an emerging issue all over the world and is being discussed on local to global levels. Plastics are polymers produced by the polymerization of monomers. Plastics are made from naphtha, a byproduct of petroleum and gas refining. Actually, Naphtha is a waste product. So, it is good to approach to use Naphtha for making such valuable products. Plastic has become an indispensable material in modern society. There is a significant increase in the demand of plastics since industrial revolution because of its unique properties (strength, flexibility, low cost, easily available raw material etc.) and is involved in everyday items e.g. tables, chairs, computers, shopping bags etc.

Besides all the uses, benefits of plastics the problem is that it is nonbiodegradable and can stay in the open environment for hundreds of years (500 years). It takes very long time to degrade in the open environment. It releases methane gas during degradation that is a potent greenhouse gas. It destroys the aesthetic beauty of the environment and kills millions of animals due to choking every year. Millions of animals are dying because of plastic pollution. Especially birds and water organisms. Sea turtles, seals, sea lions, fish, whale, dolphin, sea birds etc. are most affected due to plastic pollution.

Worldwide, one million plastic bags and one million plastic bottles are used every minute. About,50% of our plastic use is single use (disposable) and it contains 10% of the total waste generated. The global production of plastics was 311 million tons in 2014and is expected to reach 1.2 billion tons by 2050.8 million tons of plastic ends up in the ocean each year. That is the equivalent to one garbage truck per minute and at that rate, it could increase two trucks per minute by 2030 and four by 2050”.If the present scenario continues then, by 2050ocean will have more plastic than fish.

Many solutions were proposed to this problem e.g. banning plastics, replacing plastics, imposing extra taxes on plastics, imposing stricter laws etc. The best solution to plastics pollution is“Oxo-biodegradable plastics”.Oxo-biodegradable plastics contains a small amount of additive(transition metal salte.g. Mn etc.) that promotes degradation of plastics in natural environments after its service life. One of these additives is D2W- Designed to Waste.D2W is a special additive made by Symphony Environmental (A UK based Firm) to make plastics smarter and control their life. It breaks the long chains of carbohydrate in plastics responsible for its strength and flexibility after the end of its pre-determined service life and converts the plastics into a material that is no longer plastics and easily be assimilated by microbes in the environment. It also stabilizes the properties of plastics e.g. stability, flexibility, strength and prevent premature degradation and prevents release methane during degradation while bio-based plastics do so. Business Dynamics is distributing this special additive in Pakistan to tackle plastic pollution. Many countries now have rules and regulation about the use of Oxo-biodegradable plastics e.g. UAE, KSA, Pakistan, UK etc. These countries are promoting and advising the use of Oxo-biodegradable plastics by making laws, conducting awareness seminars etc.

Another effective solution to avoid shopping bag pollution is to increase the thickness of plastic bags. Plastic bags with lower thickness can move from one place to other by wind etc. stuck to a tree etc. and may be confused by animals as food, and leading to death by choking. India increased thickness from 20 microns to 50 microns. Similarly, in Pakistan, Islamabad, KPK, AJK increased thickness, Sindh imposed a ban on non-biodegradable plastic bags, while Punjab and Baluchistan are working to increase the thickness of plastic bags. Instead of using one-time use of plastic bags we must use same shopping bag again and again. Plastic bags must not be available for free. Shopkeeper must charge for plastic bags to reduce plastic consumption. The government must also impose a levy on plastic bags to lower their consumption.

We also need to focus on cloth bags. We must use a cloth bag instead of plastic bags to tackle this issue. Companies using pet e.g. Mineral Water Companies, Cold Drink Companies etc. must promote recycling by introducing schemes like “Return Empty Bottle and Get Reward”. This will also help in reducing plastic burden.



Put a STOP to the Water DROP

Water is the precious blessing of nature and life is impossible without water. It is essential for all forms of life on this planet but the water availability is becoming very scarce in Pakistan with the passage of time. Pakistan by birth is an agro-based economy, agriculture contributes for more than 21.8% in GDP and 70% of exports are associated with this sector. A huge amount of total water available in Pakistan (>95%) is consumed by agricultural sector as majority of the country population (>60%) is related to this sector either directly or indirectly. Population and water demand of Pakistan is increasing rapidly but Per capita water availability is decreasing at an alarming rate, posing adverse impacts on country health and economy and leading towards devastation. The reduced water availability will disturb national economy very badly in multiple ways e.g. reduced agricultural production, hydropower generation potential, industrial activity, disease etc. The growth rate of Pakistan reached to 5.7% in 2018 due effective policies of the government.

Water security is becoming a very hot issue especially for Pakistan as Pakistani Government didn’t pay serious attention regarding this issue and India is busy in blocking our water by forming dams on eastern rivers. Per capita, water availability decreased with the passage of time and reached to 1000 cubic meters in 2015 from 5600 cubic meters in 1947 because water is excessively wasted at houses, offices, markets, and factories. Fresh and drinking water is used for washing, gardening, and other non-drinkable purposes. All these activities ranked Pakistan as 3rd water scarce country, placing human survival at risk and halting all development. Indus river and its tributaries, bring 144 MAF of water annually to Pakistan, more than 90% from western rivers and remaining from eastern rivers. 105 MAF is diverted for irrigation. Of the 105 MAF withdrawn by canal network, approximately 42 percent infiltrates to groundwater reservoir while 3 percent is lost as evaporation or through non-beneficial consumption, including unintended vegetation along banks, and breaches etc. in the conveyance network. The balance 55 percent, or 58 MAF, becomes available to farmers for use in the fields by crops.

Jamshed Iqbal Cheema, a well-known agriculturist said that country’s water storage capacity is decreasing that will badly disturb agricultural and power sector. He said that storage capacity of one of the biggest water project Tarbela Dam and Mangla Dam decreased from 9.69 to 6.56 MAF (32%) and 5.34 to 4.41 MAF (18%) respectively.

Pakistan can store only 10% of its annual rivers flow as compared to the world average of 40%. By 2025, more than 31% population of Pakistan will face severing water shortage. This need for serious steps e.g. imposing water conservation strategies e.g. water metering and charging, building of water reservoirs, dams including Kala-Bagh dam and many other water storage projects. The government allocated 79 billion in the 2018-19 budget for water division including 18 billion for completion of DiaMirBhasha Dam and claimed that by completing this dam water storing capacity will increase from 38 days to 45 days against the minimum requirement of 120 days while most of the developed countries have 1-2 years’ water storage capability.

Pakistan is working on water policy since many years and finally formulated Pakistan’s first water policy 2018 in compliance with National Climate Change Policy 2012. This water policy focuses on sustainable use of water resources, increasing the efficiency of the water system, repairing the downstream leakages, smart metering, treating wastewater and creating effective solutions increasing water efficiency.

Pakistan should work on the serious issue of water scarcity on a priority basis to deal with adverse social and economic impacts. There are 26 water projects in the pipeline, construction activities must be completed on priority basis. Siltation of Tarbela and Mangla dam is reducing total water storage capacity. In this regard Kalabagh dam will the best solution to overcome water crisis by storing 3.2 MAF for next 100 years, will also help in generating renewable 3600 MW hydropower and lowering flood risk due to monsoon rainfall.

Sindh will be worst affected if Kalabagh dam not completed on time because of reduced water supply for irrigation. Some NGO’s and politician for their own benefits are opposing kalabagh dam by saying that this will reduce water supply and be leading to saline intrusion. Actually after the construction of this Sindh will receive additional 2.26 MAF water. This will increase average water supply of Sindh from 37% to 40%. Kalabagh and other such water projects must be completed on a priority basis to solve the upcoming water crisis.