Why Should Boys have all the fun?

A situation in which someone is treated less well because of their sex this situation called gender discrimination. This worse reality exists in our society, usually, a girl treated less well than a boy.

According to the Advocates for Human Rights, “Son preference” is a custom rooted in gender inequality. During a survey, 65.5% of the respondents preferred more boys than girls, 27.4% of the respondents had no preference, while only 6.1% preferred more girls than boys.

When a boy is born, friends and relatives exclaim congratulations. A son means insurance. He will inherit his father’s property and get a job to help support the family. When a girl is born, the reaction is very different. A male child is regarded as more valuable to the family girls often are denied the right to life.

Girls served less food not only in quantity but sometimes in quality also. Society mindset that a boy must be strong healthy and smart because he has faced the world, While girls in a home boundary don’t need quality food, after all, she is a household servant. Girls also avail fewer healthcare facilities than boys.

Similar behavior in education, boys focused more on education than a girl. Quality education decided for them and good institutions selected for him, while on the other hand girls ignored for quality education, being literate is enough for her.

Economically boys are granted with handsome pocket money, they are free to spend this amount where they want, there is no any inquiry what they are doing, but no specific amount reserved for girls, most of the time she compromised with her needs also. In this age of technology, boys are enjoying smartphones, and other IT related accessories while these are prohibited for girls because these things considered as tools which can be used to spoil family respect and status. Discrimination on the basis of gender is distressing the reality. These differences result in criminal activities. People who are discriminated against can suffer significant negative consequences.

Education plays a vital role in society and both the genders have a right to be educated and treated equally. We need to make people aware of the fact that girls are of equal importance as boys. In Islam, having a daughter is considered to be a reward and the parents would be rewarded in the hereafter. Our society needs to understand the rights of girls and should start treating them the way they deserve to be treated.


Cluster plate movements and variation in solar radiation

The total amount of solar radiation varies by very small amounts. The energy emitted by the sun only varies by 1.3 W/m2. This change in solar radiation is related to the number of sunspots. Sunspots are darker areas on the sun’s surface. A sunspot develops where an intense magnetic field weakens the flow of gasses that transport heat energy from the sun’s interior. Sunspots appear dark because their temperature is lower than the surrounding area. Approximately every 11 years, the number of sunspots changes from a maximum number to a minimum number. The sun emits slightly more radiation during active periods of sunspots. Because the sunspots are suppressing heat, the heat flows to surrounding areas causing these regions to be brighter than normal, radiating more heat. While more sunspots may contribute to warmer global climate, fewer sunspots appear to be associated with a cooler global climate. About 300 years ago, there was a period of reduced solar activity. This was called the Little Ice Age. As tectonic plates move over geological timescales, landmasses are carried along to different positions and latitudes . These changes affect global circulation patterns of air and ocean water and the climate of the continents. One form of evidence for plate tectonics and an example of how plate tectonics affects climate is the location of coal mines. Coal mines were formed over millions of years ago in tropical areas, yet are found at higher latitudes today. You also learned in the Temperature over Time module that, since the industrial revolution, the Northern Hemisphere has warmed more than the Southern Hemisphere. This is because the Northern Hemisphere has a larger percentage of Earth’s landmass compared to the ocean than the Southern Hemisphere. Remember that landmasses warm faster than oceans due to the high heat capacity of the oceans. El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an oscillation of the ocean and atmosphere system in the tropical area of the Pacific Ocean that affects global weather. Normally the southeast trade winds blow across the tropical Pacific Ocean toward the west. Every 3 to 10 years, the southeast trade winds weaken, allowing the warm water to flow further eastward toward South America. This warmer current of water typically reaches the western coast of South America near Christmas and has become known to the Peruvian fishermen as El Nino (for the Christ child). El Nino is also known as the warm-water phase of the ENSO. El Nino causes the water temperature off of South America to be warmer. An El Nino warm-water phase changes global weather patterns. South America experiences wetter than average weather, while North America experiences mild but stormier winter weather. During an El Nino warm water phase, there are fewer and less intense hurricanes in the Atlantic Ocean because the rising warmer air over the eastern Pacific Ocean causes more wind shear and hurricanes are not able to form in the Caribbean Sea. Sometimes, after an El Nino phase subsides, a colder-than-normal water phase, known as La Nina.akak

Natural causes of climate change

Volcanic eruption discharge carbon dioxide but they may also emit aerosols such as volcanic ash and dust and sulfur dioxide. Aerosols are liquids and solids that float around in the air. They may also include soot, dust, salt crystals, bacteria, and viruses. Aerosols scatter incoming solar radiation, causing a slightly cooling effect. Volcanic aerosols can block a percentage of sunlight and cause a cooling that may last for 1-2 years. In volcanic eruptions, volcanoes release ash particles and sulfur dioxide into the stratosphere. The larger particles settle after a few days while the sulfur dioxide combines with water vapor to form sulfuric acid and sulfate particles known together as sulfuric aerosols. Winds transport these sulfurous aerosols around the planet in easterly or westerly directions. For this reason, volcanoes that erupt at lower latitudes are more likely to cause hemispheric or global cooling. Volcanoes that erupt at higher latitudes are less likely to cause cooling because the sulfurous aerosols are confined to wind patterns surrounding the poles. Carbon dioxide is released when magma rises from the depths of the Earth on its way to the surface. Our studies here at Kilauea show that the eruption discharges between 8,000 and 30,000 metric tons of CO2 into the atmosphere each day. Actively erupting volcanoes release much more CO2 than sleeping ones do.


Climate change and causes of global warming

Climate change defined as: “Long term weather patterns and trends becoming different over an extended period of time”

For example if the average temperature in Pakistan  over the 20th century is significantly higher or lower than the average temperature in Pakistan over the 19th century this would be an example of climate change.

Global warming and climate change in reality the two terms means different things have both been used for decades. Climate change again as the name suggest, refers to the changes in global climate which result from increasing average global temperature. For example changes in precipitation patterns, increased prevalence of drought, heat waves and other extreme weather etc. In general there are 10 indicators with the help of which we can detect climate change and global warming. There are 7 indicators that would be expected to increase in a warming world and 3 indicators would be expected to decrease.

Changes in climate can result from both natural events and human activities. Examples for natural events are volcanic eruptions, variation in earth’s orbit around sun and variation in solar output. Examples for human induced causes are industrial pollutant and fossil fuels, warming of average annual temperature due to urbanization and changes in earth’s albedo due to deforestation of tropical rainforest.

Earth temperature depends on the balance between energy entering and leaving the planet’s system. When incoming energy from the sun is absorbed by earth system, Earth warms when energy is reflected back into the space. Earth avoids warming when energy is released back into the space. Earth cools many factors both natural and human can cause changes in earth’s energy balance.

Our lives are connected to the climate. Human societies have adapted to the relatively stable climate we have enjoyed since the last ice age which ended several thousand years ago. A warming climate will bring changes that can affect our water supplies, power and transportation system, natural experiments and even our own health and safety. Carbon dioxide can stay in atmosphere for nearly a century so earth will continue to warm in coming decades. The warmer it gets, the greater the risk for more severe changes to climate and earth’s system. It is difficult to predict the exact impacts of climate change.