The overwhelming consensus amongst climate scientists is that the Earth is already experiencing multiple dramatic changes caused by the burning of fossil fuels and other climate changing activities and other climate changing .Although the scientific method can never attribute a single storm or drought to global warming, evidence and models agree that the number and intensity of weather anomalies have increased significantly due to climate change.
Pakistan is particularly vulnerable to climate change because it has generally a warm climate. It lies in a geographical region where the temperature increases are expected to be higher than the global average. Its land area is mostly arid and semi-arid (about 60 percent of the area receives less than 250 mm of rainfall per year and 24 percent receives between 250-500 mm). Its rivers are predominantly fed by the Hindu Kush-Karakoram-Himalayan glaciers which are reported to be receding rapidly due to global warming. Its economy is largely agrarian and hence highly climate sensitive; and because the country faces increasingly larger risks of variability in monsoon rains, hence large floods and extended droughts.
Under the influence of all these factors the Water Security, the Flood Security and the Energy Security of the country are under serious threat. Compounding these problems are the expected increased risks to the coastal areas and the Indus deltaic region due to sea level rise, coastal erosion, saline sea water intrusion and increasing cyclonic activity in the Arabian Sea. The Indus Delta is already located in the intense heat zone and any rise in temperature would impact human health due to heat strokes, diarrhea, cholera, vector-borne diseases; and human settlements due to frequent floods, droughts, and cyclones.
In this region, the temperature is likely to increase by 4°C till 2100 and rainfall are going to be highly variable on the temporal and spatial scale. The deltaic region would not only be affected by the local weather conditions but also weather activities upstream Indus and over the neighboring sea in the south due to climate change