وڌندڙ صنفي اڻبرابري

اسان جي معاشري ۾ عورتن کي انهن جا جائز حق نٿا ڏنا وڃن. اسان جي ملڪ ۾ عورتن جو تعداد مردن جي برابر آهي. پر مرد حاوي معاشري ۾ عورت مظلوم آهي. هتي صنفي اڻبرابري عروج تي پهتل آهي. هتي بنت حوا سان ابن آدم جو سلوڪ جانورن کان به بدتر رهيو آهي ۽ رهندو پيو اچي. عورتن کي نه صرف تعليم پر انهن کي فيصلي ڪرڻ جا حق به ڪونهي. انهن جي زندگي سڳو ڏينهن گهر جو ڪم ۽ ٻارن جي پرورش ڪندي گذرندو آهي پر ان جي اهڙي عظيم ڪم جو ڪڏهن به ڪٿي به مڃتا ملي سگهي آهي. عورت صرف گهر ۾ ڪم ڪو نه ڪندي آهي عورت فيڪٽرين ۾ مزدوري پڻ ڪندي آهي، عورت زراعت جو ڪم پڻ ڪندي آهي عورت روڊ ۽ رستن ٺاهڻ ۾ نمايان ڪردار ادار ڪندي آهي. اڄ جي عورت ڪمزرو نه پر هڪ طاقتور عورت آهي. جنهن کي جيڪڏهن معاشي ترقي لاءِ موزون رستا فراهم ڪيا وڃن ته اسانجو ملڪ معاشي طرح سان سگهارو ٿي سگهي ٿو. ان کان علاوه  تاريخ گواه آهي ته اسان جي ملڪ جي آزادي ۾ عورتن وڏو ڪردار ادا ڪيو آهي پر اڻبرابري جي تصور جي ڪري انهن کي اڄ ڏينهن تائين اهو حق ناهي ملي سگهيو ته ڪو هڪ ڏينهن انهن جي  لازوال قرباننين کي ياد ڪيو وڃي. پاڪستان جي تحريڪ ۾ صرف مردن کي هيرو جي ڪردار سان نوازيو ويو آهي. عورتن جو ته ڪٿي ذڪر ئي نٿو ملي . سواء ٻن عورتن جي هڪ فاطمه جناح ۽ ٻي بيگم رانا لياقت علي. انهن جو ذڪر به انهي ڪري آهي ته انهن جو پس منظر قائد اعظم ۽ لياقت علي سان گنڍجي ٿو. باقي ٻين عورتن جي ڪردار جو ڪٿي به ذڪر نظر نٿو اچي. جنهن پنهنجون جانيون قربان ڪيون هن قوم جي آزادي لاءِ.

مفاهدن جي جنگ ۾ عورت کي صرف پنهنجي ذاتي فائدي لاءِ استعمال ڪيو ويندو آهي. پر جڏهن انهن جي جائز حقن جي ڳالهه ايندي آهي انهن کي نظرانداز ڪيو ويندو آهي. عورت نه صرف ٻارن جو پر پوري گهر جو خيال رکندي آهي. ڪيڏي نه عظيم آهي عورت پر افسوس جو اسان جو معاشرو ان کي جئين آهي تئين تسليم ڪرڻ لاءِ تيار ئي نه آهي. اسان جي معاشر ۾ صورتحال اها آهي ته جيڪڏهن ڇوڪري پيدا ٿي ٿئي ته عورت لاءِ عذاب شروع ٿي ويندو آهي. چوڻ جو مطلب ته ڄمڻ سان ئي عورت کي انهن زنجيرن ۾ جڪڙيو ويندو آهي انهن جي اڻبرابري وارو تصور ته ڄمڻ مهل ئي شروع ٿي ويندو آهي.اسان جي معاشري ۾ عورت کي مرد جي سوچ کان اڳتي سوچڻ جو ڪو به حق ناهي عورت صرف اهو ڪري سگهي ٿي جيڪو هڪ مرد سوچي. هو پنهنجين خواهشن جو اظهار نٿي ڪري سگهي هو ڪنهن سان کلي ڳالهائي نٿي سگهي . هوءِ ڪنهن سان پنهنجي پسند سان شادي نٿي ڪري سگهي . هو ڪنهن سان آزادي سان گهمي نٿي سگهي. پر مرد سڀ ڪم انتهائي آساني سان ڪري سگهي ٿو. اڻبرابري وارو سلوڪ اسان جي معاشري ۾ عورت سان هر جگهه ٿئي پيو. عورت ۽ مرد جي وچ ۾ سماجي ۽ معاشرتي تفاوتن کي ختم ڪرڻ جي ضرورت آهي. عورت کي اُهي سڀ جائز حق ڏانا وڃن جنهن جو اهي حقدار آهن مثال طور تعليم، صحت، فيصلاسازي، ۽ وغيره. انهن سان ٿيندڙ ظلم ۽ جبر کي ختم ڪري انهن کي معاشي ميدان ۾ موقعا فراهم ڪيا وڃن. اسان جيڪڏهن هڪ بهتر معاشرو تعمير ڪرڻو آهي ته ان ۾ صرف عورت ئي پنهنجو نمايان ڪردار ادا ڪري سگهي ٿي. تنهنڪري انهن سان ٿيندڙ سڀني ناانصافين ۽ اڻبرابرين کي ختم ڪيو وڃي.

342 غريب ماڻهن جو ملڪ

هن ملڪ ۾ غريب ماڻهن جو ڪل تعداد 342 آهي ۽ باقي 20 ڪروڙ کان مٿي سڀئي امير ماڻهو آهن. جيئن ته هن ملڪ ۾ غريبن جو تعداد سَوَن ۾ ۽ اميرن جو تعداد ڪروڙن ۾ آهي سو هتي جا امير ماڻهو ڏاڍا رحمدل ۽ ٻاجهارا آهن. اهي غريب ماڻهن جو تمام گهڻو خيال ڪن ٿا ۽ کين ڪک ڀڃي ٻيڻو به ڪرڻ ڪونه ٿا ڏين. انهن 342 غريب ماڻهن جي لاءِ دنيا جي هر سهولت جو بندوبست ڪيو ويو آهي. انهن ماڻهن مان جيڪڏهن ڪو بيمار ٿو ٿئي ته علاج لاءِ کيس لنڊن موڪليو ٿو وڃي. انهن جي ٻارن کي تعليم لاءِ عالمي سطح جي ادارن ۾ داخل ڪرايو ٿو وڃي. نه رڳو ايترو پر هن ملڪ جي انهن 342 غريب ماڻهن جي لاءِ هڪڙي شاندار ڪينٽين جو بندوبست ڪيو ويو آهي، جنهن ۾ مهانگائي نالي ڪا به شيءِ ناهي. اوهان جي دل مڃي يا نه پر حقيقت اها ئي آهي ته غريبن جي انهي ڪينٽين ۾ چانهه ۽ ماني جي قيمت فقط هڪ هڪ روپيو آهي. گوشت 21 روپين جو ته مڇي رڳو 13 روپين جي آهي. 342 غريبن جي لاءِ اتي برياني فقط 8 روپين جي آهي ۽ سائي ڀاڄي بس 4 روپيه. وڏي ڳالهه اها ته انهن 342 غريبن مان هر هڪ جو ماهوار پگهار تقريباً 280000 رپيا آهي. انهن غريب ماڻهن کي قيمتي گاڏيون ۽ شاندار گهر عطا ٿيل آهن. اهي غريب ماڻهو هن دنيا جي هر غم کان آزاد آهن. اهي غريب ماڻهو ئي هن ملڪ جي اڇي ڪاري جا مالڪ آهن جيڪي پنهنجي مرضي سان مختلف وقتن تي مختلف شين جا اگهه چوٽ چاڙهيندا رهندا آهن ۽ 20 ڪروڙ امير ماڻهن تي نئين سج نوان ٽيڪس لڳائيندا رهندا آهن. هن ملڪ جي 20 ڪروڙ کان مٿي امير ماڻهن کي جيئن ته پئسي وغيره جي ڪا به پرواهه ناهي سو اهي انهن ڳالهين کي ڪن ئي نه ڏيندا آهن ۽ هر پنجين سال جڏهن اهي غريب ماڻهو پيرن مرشدن جيان کين زيارت ڪرائڻ لاءِ ايندا آهن تڏهن هي به چيلن ۽ مريدن جيان سندن آڌرڀاءُ ڪندا آهن. هن ملڪ جا 20 ڪروڙ کان مٿي امير ماڻهو هر حال ۾ خوش رهندا آهن، تاڙيون وڄائيندا آهن. ٻاڪڙا هوٽلن تي چانهيون پيئندا آهن ۽ فلمون ڏسندا آهن. گانا ٻڌندا آهن ۽ ٻيڙيون پيئندا آهن. ڳالهه جو تت اهو ته، چئي سگهجي ٿو ته ڌرتي جي گولي تي هي پنهنجي نوع جو هڪ انوکو ملڪ آهي، جتي 342 غريب ۽ 20 ڪروڙ کان مٿي امير ماڻهو رهن ٿا ۽ اها به هڪڙي انوکي حقيقت چئبي ته هن ملڪ جا 342 ماڻهو سڀڪجهه هوندي به غريب آهن ۽ باقي 20 ڪروڙ کان مٿي وارا، ڪجهه به نه هوندي به امير آهن.

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Problems of Pakistan’s Tax system

Governments’ only source of income generation is tax. The generated revenue is then allocated for the expenditures of federal and provincial governments. The major issue or challenge that our society is facing is unequal collection of taxes. People have been highlighting and protesting since so long on unfair tax system. It has always been a hardcore problem for Pakistan’s economy to generate revenue; this is the reason for which our government has looked for Structural Adjustment programme at first. But, the problem still lies with the tax system. Now, this is the government’s core responsibility to identify that issue and take fundamental steps for the solution of those issues.

Government needs to reform the policies specially in the area of giving large number of exemptions in sales tax, income tax, excise duty, and custom duties due to which the incidents of tax evasions takes place. Meanwhile, if we talk about a repeated and frequent change that takes place in the legislation of taxation system that leads to its distortion. I would like to mention here one thing that all the changes that takes place in the taxation system are done just to give exemption to certain elite groups and corporations. Here, one basic question comes in mind that where just, fair and transparent system?

Some highlighted issues; I try to point out here some of serious concerns on narrow tax base and tax evasion. Talking on these challenging issues some questions raise are: why people use to evade taxes? Why corporations and some elite groups are exempted from taxes? Why rich don’t pay their due amount of share? Why only poor are burdened with general sales taxes?

According to the statistics, only 1.21 million citizens pay income tax making it less than 1% of the total population. But according to state bank of Pakistan’s annual report, 57.5 million people are employed and obviously are earning some income and thus 57.5 million people should be paying income tax one way or the other. So, that rules out the figure of tax payers that keeps on floating here and there. Moreover, Pakistan’s total population is around 207 million. According to the common notion, 29% of the population is paying the taxes. But, according to economic survey of Pakistan 61.4% population is of working age making 122 million people fall into the working population. Besides, 57.5 million tax payers constitute of 48% these working people.

Approximately 140 million mobile users pay more than 20% taxes on their consumption. People use automobiles which use fossil fuels that are subject to different taxes and consequently people end up paying them. These are the most certain taxes that probably no one can evade. Now here, what I wanted to highlight is that all the users are paying equal taxes, do you not think that it should be charged on the basis of the income of a user?

The problem lies with the poor management of our existing resources. What if, our government went for progressive tax system instead of regressive one? Progressive tax system is defined as when you impose higher taxes for the people with higher income whereas, lower taxes are going to be imposed for the lower level of people.

To sum, I would like to say that people will surely don’t evade taxes if they don’t find the absence of trust. Whereas, the state should move towards the progressive tax system so that the one who is rich won’t get richer and the one who is poor won’t get poorer. As, people will then find justice to them.  We find the lack of transparency and accountability within the system as well, that make people question that whether the money we’re paying in terms of taxes is being utilized for our own benefits or it being used for satisfying the interests of someone else. Therefore, it is to be recommended that the government should make reform in the tax system, there is a badly need of using modern technology to analyze data, ensure the level of trust, accountability and transparency for achieving better tax system.

 

 

 

 

Prevailing tax issue and Constitutional Status of Gilgit-Baltistan

Gilgit-Baltistan (GB) previously known as Northern areas and locals call it Balawaristan, in British rule it was administratively controlled by State of Jammu and Kashmir. In 1947, after Pakistan and India gained independence from British rule, Jammu and Kashmir had the option to join either India or Pakistan or to remain independent. Jammu and Kashmir initially remained an independent state, Later on October 1947, tribal militias crossed the border into Jammu and Kashmir, as result Lord Mountbatten(first Governor-General of India), and Indian politicians pressurised/offered Maharaja to accede Muslim Majority State to India, after some resistance Maharaja signed an Instrument of Accession to the Dominion of India. People of GB in the supervision of Scout commander Col. Hassan Khan (from Nagar) mutinied on 1 November 1947, overthrowing Governor Ghansara Singh and formed the provisional government but it lasted 16 days. After that Government of Azad Kashmir made an agreement with Govt. of Pakistan. This agreement had many flaws:

  1. Govt. of Azad Kashmir has no relationships with GB because both are separate setups which were previously controlled under Jammu-Kashmir so authority might rest with Jammu-Kashmir, not Azad Kashmir.
  2. Govt. of Azad handed administration of the area to the federal government via the Karachi Agreement, without even consulted the people of GB (Modern name).
  3. According to Political Scientists, this was no an agreement because it deprived significant powers and responsibilities of Gbians/Kashmiris in return for nothing.
  4. The agreement was apparently kept as a secret document up to 1990s (Public upon orders by the court of Azad Kashmir).
  5. The Interim Constitution of Azad was silent about GB from 1949 till 1974. In 1972 Legislative assembly passed a resolution to reclaiming Gilgit-Baltistan.

After dissolving the status of the Interim state, people of Gilgit-Baltistan living under constitutional limbo, they are being subject presidential orders from Federal and as a result no permanency in rules of the business.

Due to provisional setup GB facing problems in divisional indigenous financial planning with no clear means of revenue and expenditure. Bureaucracies also don’t have clear solution regarding GB due to overloaded bureaucrats especially from federal with no preference to locals. Gilgit-Baltistan fiscal issues currently managed via GB Council, which is comprised of mostly non-local members chairing by PM of Pakistan. Federal govt. passed the GB tax adaptation act in 2012 but implemented in Nov 2017 which fuelled the protest and shutter down strikes. Locals chanting the slogan of #NoTaxationWithoutRepresentation and saying that ‘’we are being taxed by a Parliament to which we have no representatives. We (GBians) are Aliens as per Constitution of #PAKISTAN”.  They are demanding the rights as a citizen of Pakistan to pay taxes. Recently Govt. decided to withdraw from imposing the direct taxes upon fierce reaction but indirect taxes already paid by residents of GB with no Tax rebate and share to the region.

Govt. of Pakistan is collecting far greater amount as revenue compared to Expenditure, in terms of customs duties from Pak-China trade via SOST Dry in Gilgit-Baltistan, Licencing of trophy hunting, leasing of Mineral reserves & amount earned from tourism, and this amount is directly collected by federal govt. with no share NFC awards. The royalty of rivers coming from GB has not been given till to date. As per the Shimla Agreement between Pakistan and India in 1972, disputed territories including Jammu, Azad Kashmir and GB have been provided subsidy on almost 70 items, but this is also gradually cut by Federal.

Before the start of new economic Era of CPEC(China Pakistan Economic Corridor), Gilgit-Baltistan (the gateway of the route) needs to be given clear and sustainable governance structure with the consent of locals, so that they will be able to legislate based on local scenarios in many aspects including fiscal policy at the forefront. Otherwise big corporates will establish tax havens and will evade the taxes. In addition to this, there is also need of drastic changes in order to solve the long-lasting issues as well as counter the arguments and propaganda of INDIA on international forums.