Problems faced by rural women in Pakistan

In Pakistan, women are destitute from basic rights. Several complexes yet inter connected institutionalized social and cultural factors have kept women particularly vulnerable the violence directed at them in different ways.

> Women are concentrated in the agriculture sector, primarily in diary and livestock. The returns to labor are low: only 19% are in paid employment and 60% work as unpaid workers on family farms and enterprises. Their unpaid work is valued (using comparative median wages) at PKR 683 billion, is 57% of all work done by women, and is 2.6% of GDP.

> College education is a catalyst for women to enter into the formal, paid employment. 4% rural women have college degrees, and 57% of them are employed, primarily as teachers.

> The gendered division of labor (women included in, transplanting, weeding, cotton picking, vegetable and wheat harvesting, care and management of livestock) is a barrier to women’s access to technologies, training, or microfinance. Very few women are entrepreneurs in Pakistan (1%); 20% of rural women are classified as own account workers (14% in agriculture and 6% in non-agriculture work). Women’s work as dairy farmers, vegetable producers etc. is not addressed.

> Once the backbone of the economy, contributing almost 40% of Pakistan’s GDP, agriculture now accounts for approximately 20% of the GDP, employing 42% of the labor forces (50% in rural areas, of which 28% is female).

Improving women’s access to agricultural inputs, using simple technologies to connect them to markets and information sources, expanding financial inclusion through mobile wallets and branchless banking, and removing conventional barrier to accessing credit (such as collateral, male guarantor etc.) adds value to women’s work. Skills trainings outreach and content, has to shift from its current focus on women’s reproductive roles and view them as major contributors to the economy. Climate Change Policy must be gender sensitive and nuanced to cater to the diverse geographic and topographic areas of Pakistan and the livelihoods of the communities therein. Women should be facilitated in growing new crops which are more resilient towards climate change, particularly in floods prone areas. The Environment Policy should be updated to reflect changes and to suggest actions for managing environmental changes due to climate change.

THE MINOR BUT ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF PAKISTAN  `

Pakistan is blessed to have a population that comprises of more than 60 percent of youth. Youth accelerates the wheels of nation towards development and enables every nation to get self-sufficient and independent.

It is quite unconvincing that Pakistan being a rich country in youth still thrives to get its name out of the list of the third world countries, that withstands with its name since its independence. Nations develop and win the battles against poverty and backwardness if each of the citizens does his share of work with honesty and sincerity but it is unfortunate to say that we as a nation wait for miracles to happen. We seldom do our part of hard work and long for things to change abruptly that’s quite impossible because ‘’Allah Almighty never changes the condition of people until they change it themselves’’. There is a huge list of problems of problems that have entangled the people of Pakistan. Two of the very important issues will be discussed here.

IRRESPONSIBILITY;

We as a nation are badly caught in the clutches of irresponsibility. We as a state, as an institution, as a leader, as a teacher, as a student and even as a parent are oblivious of our jobs which we should do.

Pakistan has stepped to the top position leaving Afghanistan and Africa behind in child mortality rate, that’s about more than 60 percent. People of Sindh are drinking water that gets contaminated by the leakages occurring from sewage lines. The foreign reserves of Pakistan have fallen down to 0.7 billion dollars against 7.5 billion dollars sometimes earlier. Circular debt is increasing day by day. Along with health picture. According to a report, more than 50 percent of the girls are out of schools in Baluchistan province. School buildings have become the habitat of animals. Dropout rates are getting higher and higher. Despite all the failures in front of its eyes, the government of Pakistan is a silent spectator waiting for CPEC to change their destiny.

Institutions along with government are no more than the exception. Institution drives the people of the nation, they look towards the institutions for guidance and support. If institutes themselves teach mismanagement, corruption, and immorality then citizens will also follow the same path. It is not the issue that there are no resources in institutes, they do exist but the problem lies in management and decision making.

Besides all the above-mentioned problems, students are playing their complete role in worsening the situations. Students who should be the role model for the society, do not exhibit any sense of maturity and responsibility. They do not bother to close the tap while they brush, they feel inferior in picking up the garbage thrown by themselves. How to morally guide such a mind set up is sensitive question whish should be answered by policies and action rather than just words.

RESPONSE TOWARDS ALTERNATIVES;

The stereotype thinking of our nation has kept them cling to the government jobs. Students of medical, economics, arts even agriculture students are demanding for government job merely because they lack accountability and industry. Entrepreneurship has no culture in Pakistan. People having large chunks of land should go for entrepreneurship but such people are also seen crying for government jobs. Entrepreneurship leads towards innovation and advancement generating new business ideas and thoughts. Until and unless domestic ideas will not make their place in the business sector, local markets will not flourish resulting in economic backwardness and ignorance.

Technologically, Pakistan is one of the largest users of the worldwide web. If the government is unable to generate employment opportunities why not to get the advantage of the modern technology as a substitute for earning money. Accompanying the prime minister laptop scheme another relative scheme of online courses should be started to teach the students to earn money online so that student could do something prolific rather than scrolling the social media up and down.

In a nutshell it can be stated that talent does exist in Pakistan, only a correct direction is needed. Once it will set its feet on the accurate track no force of the world will stop it from touching the heights of the sky and depths of the oceans.

Business and Human Rights Remedies

Many business activities have an impact on human rights; whether these impacts are positive or negative depends upon the approaches taken by the state and the business community. A business might hire workers through a company that subjects them to forced labor and harassment.

According to international standards on business and human rights, state authorities and business enterprises must respect, protect and fulfill all human and labor rights. These standards are articulated in a number of different international treaties, guidelines, and frameworks. For instance, the European Union has granted General Scheme of Preference Plus (GSP+) status to Pakistan; under the status, Pakistan should implement 15 human and labor rights conventions. The UNGPs reinforce key standards articulated in these 15 conventions.

The UN High Commissioner for Human Rights said that “The United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights provide a roadmap of the actions that both states and companies must take to prevent business-related human rights abuse, and to provide effective remedy and justice.”

The key obligations under UNGP – The duty of the state to protect human rights abuses, including those committed by third parties, also the corporate responsibility to respect human rights in business activities (i.e. to ensure that they do not interfere with the human rights of others) and address any negative impacts of their business activities on human rights. Moreover, the responsibility of the states and businesses to, respectively, ensure victims of abuse have access to effective remedy and grievance mechanism.

Provide access to judicial and non-judicial grievance mechanism to victims of human rights abuses involving businesses. The government may create policies and processes that commit them to respect human rights. These policies and processes should include human rights due diligence process to identify, prevent, mitigate and account for how the businesses address their human rights impacts as well as processes to remedy adverse human rights impacts due to their activities.

Provide or cooperate in grievance mechanisms that seek to remedy adverse human rights impacts linked to their activities. Remedies may be provided through state-based processes, such as the courts, or non-state-based processes, including industry, multi-stakeholder and/or other collaborative initiatives.

Women In Pakistan

As Pakistan is a growing and developing country and for the past few years its condition is not much improving, this in act is further affecting the condition of women. As more and more people are affected thus poverty is increasing.

When the world has come into existence, from the time of the end, the woman achieves perfection. How much more than this woman, who kept the holy paradise under the feet, in the form of a woman, her degrees are high. “Being a mother, it is a paradise, a woman being a wife is able to have a spirit, as sister it is a pray, and a Daughter it is a kind of Blessing.” We are well aware of the greatness of the woman. Pakistani women, especially rural women, play a vital role in agriculture and contribute in all operations linked to crop production and livestock management at field level. The majority of the women living in the rural areas are involved in poultry farming, cattle farming, and handicrafts.

Women are also responsible for performing household activities, looking after their family members, preparing food for them three times a day and fetching drinking water and fuel for cooking. But Now Many NGOs also doing work for girl’s education they convince parents, give awareness to them and giving them free schooling. In Pakistan, apparently through the perspective of Islam this country says it gives equal right to both men and women but there is another side to the picture. Women constitute a small portion in decision making and they contribute very less o the development of the country as there labor force participation with respect to men is very less. The status of women in this country represents the traditions and the social customs, which led women to this condition.

Women are always underprivileged then man in Pakistan, they get less education, food, decision making and health. As it considered, men are the lords of women, and women are deprived from their basic rights. Women destiny is controlled by men. This is not the case in Pakistan only but also in many countries men are considered superior than women. To achieve development, we have to convert our weakness to strengths. The living conditions of women, their poverty and huge family household prevent them from gaining education. Since the beginning girls are required to work with their mothers to look after the whole family and do household chores this, therefore limits their time and energy to get involved in education. Issue of illiteracy is the main priority for women. As only educated women can access to economic and political sphere.

A lot of work must be done to finish inequality and discrimination based on gender especially in schools .hard work must be done to enroll all children in to school, especially girls. And to make sure that they complete their studies up till tertiary level as this can lead to good productive jobs and high economic growth for the whole country.

Economic participation refers to contribution of females to workforce in quantitative terms. Economic opportunity is related to how much women are involved in the economy, beyond their mere presence as workers. This problem is concentrated in developed countries where women gain access to employment easily but they have little chances of upward mobility.

Since beginning women face a lot of constraint and these restraints replicate women’s difficulty in education; lack of power and confidence and negotiating authority; as from their household they are misjudge which effects in low self-respect plus with comparatively high participation in part-time or transitory professions; leads to less employment for women and discrimination against them. Despite women’s increased participation in the labor market, there has been no significant increase in the sharing of unpaid work, which affects women’s employment choices.

In Pakistan, especially in rural areas Violence against women is very common. And they are not encouraged to report their cases to police. If anyone of them does that, instead of giving them their proper right, they are subjugated to humility. The dowry has been maintained and thousands of females are killed every year by their husbands because the dowry is too little. And as the majority of the cases are not registered so more than half of the scenarios do not come to the surface. Moreover, male children are given more rights than female. As the girl is considered a burden for the whole family, especially when children are ill, the parents favor to pay treatment for sons than for daughters, resultantly more girls die.Women are not free to move in the villages and suffer severe restriction on their movement.

The role of women outside the home has become an important feature of the social and economic life of the country and in the years to come, this will become still more significant. From this point of view, greater attention will have to be paid to the problems of training and development of women. The education of girls, therefore, should be emphasized not only on grounds of social justice but also because it accelerates social transformation. Promoting women education is a challenging task and it required multipronged efforts for a solution.