Hepatitis C, Its Causes & preventions

Hepatitis C is a liver infection caused by virus (HCV). Hepatitis C is a blood-borne virus. Today, most people become infected with the Hepatitis C virus by sharing needles or other equipment to inject drugs. For some people, hepatitis C is a short-term illness but for 70%–85% of people who become infected with Hepatitis C, it becomes a long-term, chronic infection. Chronic Hepatitis C is a serious disease than can result in long-term health problems, even death. The majority of infected persons might not be aware of their infection because they are not clinically ill. There is no vaccine for Hepatitis C. The best way to prevent Hepatitis C is by avoiding behaviors that can spread the disease, especially injecting drugs.

Symptoms and signs are

a)      Elevated liver enzymes in the blood

b)      Weakness

c)      Loss of appetite

d)      Weight loss

e)      Breast enlargement in men (gynecomastia)

f)       Redness of the palms

g)      Difficulty with the clotting of blood

h)      Spider-like blood vessels on the skin

i)        Abdominal pain

j)        Clay colored stools

k)      Bleeding from the esophagus

l)        Fluid in the abdomen

m)   Yellow skin and eyes (jaundice)

n)      Confusion

o)      Coma

Hepatitis C is not transmitted by breast-milk. However, a child may be inheritably affected by mother at the time of birth.

A very small number of cases of hepatitis C are transmitted through sexual intercourse. Poor infection control practices during tattooing and body piercing potentially can lead to spread of infection. There have been some outbreaks of hepatitis C when instruments exposed to blood have been re-used without adequate cleaning and sterilization between patients.Hepatitis C can be transmitted from an organ donor to an organ recipient. Donors of organs are tested for hepatitis C.

Hepatitis C is one of several viruses that cause hepatitis (inflammation of the liver).About 0.3% people are estimated to be currently infected with hepatitis C in the Multan district.

Several tests for diagnose are available to measure the amount of hepatitis C virus in a person’s blood (the viral load). The hepatitis C virus’s RNA can be identified by a type of test called polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that detects circulating virus in the blood as early as 2-3 weeks after infection, so it can be used to detect suspected acute infection with hepatitis C early infection.

Hepatitis C infection can cause the body to produce abnormal antibodies called cry globulins. Cry globulins cause inflammation of arteries (vasculitis). This may damage skin, joints, and kidneys. Patients with cryglobulinemia (cry globulins in the blood) may have

a)      joint pain,

b)      arthritis,

c)      a raised purple rash on the legs, and

d)      Generalized pain or swelling of their bodies.

Primary ways to control

  • Not sharing household items
  • Do not inject drugs
  • Eat a diet low in saturated and no trans-fat.
  • Drink 8 to 12 eight ounces of water daily,
  • Reduce sugar and high sodium foods.
  • Exercising regularly
  • Avoid fried foods.
  • Eat lots of fresh vegetables and fruits, choose organic if possible.
  • adhering to medication
  • taking an active role in medical care
  • Not using alcohol

Globalization and ICTs

Globalization has fast-tracked economic integration among various countries around the world with an exponential increase in free trade, overseas investments, capital flows from developed to developing countries, monetary and fiscal deals as well as changes in the information communication and technology (ICTs).

Globalization has been embedded virtually in all measures of life – from individuals to businesses, institutions, organizations, state, and government.  The flow of ideas, information, things, and goods has increased significantly.

After World War II, there have been lot of work by politicians that led to the agreement for the Bretton Woods Conference, in which major governments set down the framework for international monetary policy, commerce, finance and the formation of several international institutions such as The United Nations, The World Bank, The International Monetary Fund, and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) these have made significant paradigm shifts and developments in the global economies.

Rising globalization has more been promoted by fast-changing contemporary ICTs and the economic policies supported by the ideas of neo-liberalism. Because of these two developments, the globalization has captivated the big corporations and companies, and it has been very integral part and has made its roots entrenched. Furthermore, capitalizing on the politicians has captured the wealth and resources.

Today’s businesses have all been shifted to Information, Communication, and Technology (LCT) and in the last fifty years, it has witnessed a tremendous progress in globalizing the world businesses, trades, and economies.

In our days, the economies depend on the information because the development of computers, the internet, satellite communications, and telecommunications have all contributed a lot to the fast flow of information and data transfer from one country to another. The global news events and monetary transactions happen instantly across the globe.

Around the world today neo-liberal economic ideas dominate that help flourish globalization. This notion is based on free markets and trade, trifling government involvement and regulation. Not only are this but its more domains, it accentuates the competition, profitability, efficiency and growth. Ultimately, the beneficiaries of these policies are rich and high-fi business community.

The idea of globalization has unified the world economies through the power of ICTs. The international infrastructures have changed the system of free trade, which allows the increased flow of goods and financial transactions.  The main actors in this domain are the states, multinational companies, and investment banks that share the same economic philosophy.

The trajectory of Pakistan’s economy is growing to contribute to the reduction of poverty since last the few years. But its pace is sluggish because we lag behind in the advancement of present-day technologies that cause thriving of the economy.

Presently, we are expecting a lot from the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC). As it would make Pakistan’s economy globalized through familiarizing with new packages of information, communication, and technology. One of its initiatives has already been carried out in the shape of demutualisation and divestiture of Pakistan stock exchange.

Since the implanted ideology of globalization and neo-liberal economic policies has caused inequality and widen the gap between the rich and the poor in Pakistan. That today, there are 44 richest people in Pakistan against around 190 million populations.

To compete with accelerating global economy and to make it sustainable, we need to progress in the field of information communication and technology because, in future, the whole economy is going to be more digitized, globalized and ICTised.

Women Pay Price for Big Dam

Large dams are displacing thousands of people where women traditionally have few legal or customary rights to the natural resources on which they depend. 

When communities are resettled to make way for new dams, they are moved to new houses and replacement fields. But the way in which legal compensation processes combine with customary rights means that women often lose out, not receiving compensation for lost sources of income, or losing control of family finances.

This can have knock on consequences for communities, as children may miss out on education, or families may face food shortages.

In many societies, women’s revenue usually covers children’s and day-to-day household needs (e.g. soap, water, medicines and so on) as well as supporting their own commercial activities.

When households are relocated, the compensation process is largely determined ‘by household’ and therefore it is the man who is the registered ‘beneficiary’ of the compensation. In some cases they have taken the money and run, leaving family members destitute, or used the compensation finance to take additional wives. 

Transforming both the social context (housing, water, social services) and the resource base (income streams for women) in a new resettlement site remains a significant challenge, especially in societies where sexual equality is still a distant dream. 

Perhaps one way forward is for donors to support more direct exchanges between communities affected by dams, with those who have already experienced adverse impacts sharing what they have learned with their peers prior to relocation. 

 

Pillar in an Economy

For every nation, there are few pillars, and they are considered as building blocks of a nation. These pillars are Military, Judiciary, and Youth! The stronger these pillars are, the more developed, and the more successful a nation is. The role of youth holds the central place, in deciding the fate of a nation. A very important fact is, that those countries, and nations which keep their youth-focused in the right direction and on the right path, and those countries, who consider their youth, as an important factor of their life are more progressive. Manpower, especially youth are the torch bearer of every nation.

Here in Pakistan, our youth lacks proper guidance, & leadership. All other developed and progressing countries in the world are aware of their worth, and they consider their youth as their asset. The reason for the success of these countries is they provide all the life necessities of life to their youth. Like Education, employment, health, and other facilities. If you are concerned about your youth, and you put it in the right direction, then you will see how productive and how different the results are.

We know, that Pakistan is in danger, and we are surrounded by different threats, including internal and external forces, which are trying to sabotage Pakistan and its peace. There are so many contradictions and problems, which are not letting us be ONE! To be united, we must eliminate the problems and internal disputes, which are among us. We should consider our youth as our power, and they should also consider serving their country as a national responsibly.