ADAPTATIONS AND MITIGATION MECHANISMS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Mitigation addresses the causes of climate change (accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere), whereas adaptation addresses the impacts of climate change. … On the other hand, adaptation will not be able to eliminate all negative impacts and mitigation is crucial to limit changes in the climate system.

Climate mitigation is any action taken to permanently eliminate or reduce the long-term risk and hazards of climate change to human life, property.

The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) defines mitigation as: “An anthropogenic intervention to reduce the sources or enhance the sinks of greenhouse gases.” Climate Mitigation and Adaptation

Climate adaptation refers to the ability of a system to adjust to climate change (including climate variability and extremes) to moderate potential damage, to take advantage of opportunities, or to cope with the consequences.

The IPCC defines adaptation as the, “adjustment in natural or human systems to a new or changing environment. Adaptation to climate change refers to adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities. Various types of adaptation can be distinguished, including anticipatory and reactive adaptation, private and public adaptation, and autonomous and planned adaptation.”

IN PAKISTAN:

Analysis of past depicts that our climate is changing. The rate of change and the nature of the resulting impacts will vary over time and across the country, affecting all aspects of our life. In conjunction with efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, it will also be necessary to adapt to the impacts of a changing climate. Understanding what climate change will mean for Pakistan is only one step in that process. Future changes in climate of the magnitude projected by most global climate models would cause a major impact on our water resources, and subsequently affect food supply, health, industry, transportation and ecosystem sustainability. Problems are most likely to arise to southern parts of country where the resource is already under stress, because that stress would be exacerbated by changes in supply or demand associated with climate change. Previous record and projections by GCMs and RCMs depicts that extreme events (drought and flooding) would become more frequent and of greater magnitude in different parts of the country. These extreme

events would place stress on existing infrastructure and institutions, with potentially major economic, social and environmental consequences. Therefore, particular emphasis needs to be placed on the impacts/mitigation of such extremes.

IN INDIA:

There is growing evidence that the climate change do has implications for drought vulnerable India with studies projecting future possible reductions in monsoon related rainfall in the country. The existing drought risk mitigation and response mechanisms were looked into and gaps were identified by drawing lessons from previous disasters and response mechanisms. In absence of reliable climate predictions at the scales that make them useful for policy level planning, the emphasis was on identifying no-regret adaptation options those would reduce current vulnerabilities while mainstreaming the adaptation in the long run. The most notable climate change implications for the drought vulnerable India are the enhanced preparedness with due emphasis to the community based preparedness planning, reviewing the existing monsoon and drought prediction methodologies, and establishing drought monitoring and early warning systems in association with a matching preparedness at the input level.

IN BANGLADESH:

The linking adaptation to mitigation makes mitigation action more relevant to policymakers in Bangladesh, increasing engagement in the international climate change agenda in preparation for a post-Kyoto global strategy. This case study strengthens the argument that while combining mitigation and adaptation is not a magic bullet for climate policy, synergies, particularly at the project level, can contribute to the sustainable development goals of climate change and are worth exploring.

CONCLUSION:

In developing countries like Pakistan, India, Bangladesh are others there is entire need of maintaining a sustainable environment in which there is adaptive techniques applied for the maintenance of good humid and natural environment which is fittest for human and environment both.

Problems faced by rural women in Pakistan

In Pakistan, women are destitute from basic rights. Several complexes yet inter connected institutionalized social and cultural factors have kept women particularly vulnerable the violence directed at them in different ways.

> Women are concentrated in the agriculture sector, primarily in diary and livestock. The returns to labor are low: only 19% are in paid employment and 60% work as unpaid workers on family farms and enterprises. Their unpaid work is valued (using comparative median wages) at PKR 683 billion, is 57% of all work done by women, and is 2.6% of GDP.

> College education is a catalyst for women to enter into the formal, paid employment. 4% rural women have college degrees, and 57% of them are employed, primarily as teachers.

> The gendered division of labor (women included in, transplanting, weeding, cotton picking, vegetable and wheat harvesting, care and management of livestock) is a barrier to women’s access to technologies, training, or microfinance. Very few women are entrepreneurs in Pakistan (1%); 20% of rural women are classified as own account workers (14% in agriculture and 6% in non-agriculture work). Women’s work as dairy farmers, vegetable producers etc. is not addressed.

> Once the backbone of the economy, contributing almost 40% of Pakistan’s GDP, agriculture now accounts for approximately 20% of the GDP, employing 42% of the labor forces (50% in rural areas, of which 28% is female).

Improving women’s access to agricultural inputs, using simple technologies to connect them to markets and information sources, expanding financial inclusion through mobile wallets and branchless banking, and removing conventional barrier to accessing credit (such as collateral, male guarantor etc.) adds value to women’s work. Skills trainings outreach and content, has to shift from its current focus on women’s reproductive roles and view them as major contributors to the economy. Climate Change Policy must be gender sensitive and nuanced to cater to the diverse geographic and topographic areas of Pakistan and the livelihoods of the communities therein. Women should be facilitated in growing new crops which are more resilient towards climate change, particularly in floods prone areas. The Environment Policy should be updated to reflect changes and to suggest actions for managing environmental changes due to climate change.

THE MINOR BUT ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF PAKISTAN  `

Pakistan is blessed to have a population that comprises of more than 60 percent of youth. Youth accelerates the wheels of nation towards development and enables every nation to get self-sufficient and independent.

It is quite unconvincing that Pakistan being a rich country in youth still thrives to get its name out of the list of the third world countries, that withstands with its name since its independence. Nations develop and win the battles against poverty and backwardness if each of the citizens does his share of work with honesty and sincerity but it is unfortunate to say that we as a nation wait for miracles to happen. We seldom do our part of hard work and long for things to change abruptly that’s quite impossible because ‘’Allah Almighty never changes the condition of people until they change it themselves’’. There is a huge list of problems of problems that have entangled the people of Pakistan. Two of the very important issues will be discussed here.

IRRESPONSIBILITY;

We as a nation are badly caught in the clutches of irresponsibility. We as a state, as an institution, as a leader, as a teacher, as a student and even as a parent are oblivious of our jobs which we should do.

Pakistan has stepped to the top position leaving Afghanistan and Africa behind in child mortality rate, that’s about more than 60 percent. People of Sindh are drinking water that gets contaminated by the leakages occurring from sewage lines. The foreign reserves of Pakistan have fallen down to 0.7 billion dollars against 7.5 billion dollars sometimes earlier. Circular debt is increasing day by day. Along with health picture. According to a report, more than 50 percent of the girls are out of schools in Baluchistan province. School buildings have become the habitat of animals. Dropout rates are getting higher and higher. Despite all the failures in front of its eyes, the government of Pakistan is a silent spectator waiting for CPEC to change their destiny.

Institutions along with government are no more than the exception. Institution drives the people of the nation, they look towards the institutions for guidance and support. If institutes themselves teach mismanagement, corruption, and immorality then citizens will also follow the same path. It is not the issue that there are no resources in institutes, they do exist but the problem lies in management and decision making.

Besides all the above-mentioned problems, students are playing their complete role in worsening the situations. Students who should be the role model for the society, do not exhibit any sense of maturity and responsibility. They do not bother to close the tap while they brush, they feel inferior in picking up the garbage thrown by themselves. How to morally guide such a mind set up is sensitive question whish should be answered by policies and action rather than just words.

RESPONSE TOWARDS ALTERNATIVES;

The stereotype thinking of our nation has kept them cling to the government jobs. Students of medical, economics, arts even agriculture students are demanding for government job merely because they lack accountability and industry. Entrepreneurship has no culture in Pakistan. People having large chunks of land should go for entrepreneurship but such people are also seen crying for government jobs. Entrepreneurship leads towards innovation and advancement generating new business ideas and thoughts. Until and unless domestic ideas will not make their place in the business sector, local markets will not flourish resulting in economic backwardness and ignorance.

Technologically, Pakistan is one of the largest users of the worldwide web. If the government is unable to generate employment opportunities why not to get the advantage of the modern technology as a substitute for earning money. Accompanying the prime minister laptop scheme another relative scheme of online courses should be started to teach the students to earn money online so that student could do something prolific rather than scrolling the social media up and down.

In a nutshell it can be stated that talent does exist in Pakistan, only a correct direction is needed. Once it will set its feet on the accurate track no force of the world will stop it from touching the heights of the sky and depths of the oceans.

Business and Human Rights Remedies

Many business activities have an impact on human rights; whether these impacts are positive or negative depends upon the approaches taken by the state and the business community. A business might hire workers through a company that subjects them to forced labor and harassment.

According to international standards on business and human rights, state authorities and business enterprises must respect, protect and fulfill all human and labor rights. These standards are articulated in a number of different international treaties, guidelines, and frameworks. For instance, the European Union has granted General Scheme of Preference Plus (GSP+) status to Pakistan; under the status, Pakistan should implement 15 human and labor rights conventions. The UNGPs reinforce key standards articulated in these 15 conventions.

The UN High Commissioner for Human Rights said that “The United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights provide a roadmap of the actions that both states and companies must take to prevent business-related human rights abuse, and to provide effective remedy and justice.”

The key obligations under UNGP – The duty of the state to protect human rights abuses, including those committed by third parties, also the corporate responsibility to respect human rights in business activities (i.e. to ensure that they do not interfere with the human rights of others) and address any negative impacts of their business activities on human rights. Moreover, the responsibility of the states and businesses to, respectively, ensure victims of abuse have access to effective remedy and grievance mechanism.

Provide access to judicial and non-judicial grievance mechanism to victims of human rights abuses involving businesses. The government may create policies and processes that commit them to respect human rights. These policies and processes should include human rights due diligence process to identify, prevent, mitigate and account for how the businesses address their human rights impacts as well as processes to remedy adverse human rights impacts due to their activities.

Provide or cooperate in grievance mechanisms that seek to remedy adverse human rights impacts linked to their activities. Remedies may be provided through state-based processes, such as the courts, or non-state-based processes, including industry, multi-stakeholder and/or other collaborative initiatives.