Women In Pakistan

As Pakistan is a growing and developing country and for the past few years its condition is not much improving, this in act is further affecting the condition of women. As more and more people are affected thus poverty is increasing.

When the world has come into existence, from the time of the end, the woman achieves perfection. How much more than this woman, who kept the holy paradise under the feet, in the form of a woman, her degrees are high. “Being a mother, it is a paradise, a woman being a wife is able to have a spirit, as sister it is a pray, and a Daughter it is a kind of Blessing.” We are well aware of the greatness of the woman. Pakistani women, especially rural women, play a vital role in agriculture and contribute in all operations linked to crop production and livestock management at field level. The majority of the women living in the rural areas are involved in poultry farming, cattle farming, and handicrafts.

Women are also responsible for performing household activities, looking after their family members, preparing food for them three times a day and fetching drinking water and fuel for cooking. But Now Many NGOs also doing work for girl’s education they convince parents, give awareness to them and giving them free schooling. In Pakistan, apparently through the perspective of Islam this country says it gives equal right to both men and women but there is another side to the picture. Women constitute a small portion in decision making and they contribute very less o the development of the country as there labor force participation with respect to men is very less. The status of women in this country represents the traditions and the social customs, which led women to this condition.

Women are always underprivileged then man in Pakistan, they get less education, food, decision making and health. As it considered, men are the lords of women, and women are deprived from their basic rights. Women destiny is controlled by men. This is not the case in Pakistan only but also in many countries men are considered superior than women. To achieve development, we have to convert our weakness to strengths. The living conditions of women, their poverty and huge family household prevent them from gaining education. Since the beginning girls are required to work with their mothers to look after the whole family and do household chores this, therefore limits their time and energy to get involved in education. Issue of illiteracy is the main priority for women. As only educated women can access to economic and political sphere.

A lot of work must be done to finish inequality and discrimination based on gender especially in schools .hard work must be done to enroll all children in to school, especially girls. And to make sure that they complete their studies up till tertiary level as this can lead to good productive jobs and high economic growth for the whole country.

Economic participation refers to contribution of females to workforce in quantitative terms. Economic opportunity is related to how much women are involved in the economy, beyond their mere presence as workers. This problem is concentrated in developed countries where women gain access to employment easily but they have little chances of upward mobility.

Since beginning women face a lot of constraint and these restraints replicate women’s difficulty in education; lack of power and confidence and negotiating authority; as from their household they are misjudge which effects in low self-respect plus with comparatively high participation in part-time or transitory professions; leads to less employment for women and discrimination against them. Despite women’s increased participation in the labor market, there has been no significant increase in the sharing of unpaid work, which affects women’s employment choices.

In Pakistan, especially in rural areas Violence against women is very common. And they are not encouraged to report their cases to police. If anyone of them does that, instead of giving them their proper right, they are subjugated to humility. The dowry has been maintained and thousands of females are killed every year by their husbands because the dowry is too little. And as the majority of the cases are not registered so more than half of the scenarios do not come to the surface. Moreover, male children are given more rights than female. As the girl is considered a burden for the whole family, especially when children are ill, the parents favor to pay treatment for sons than for daughters, resultantly more girls die.Women are not free to move in the villages and suffer severe restriction on their movement.

The role of women outside the home has become an important feature of the social and economic life of the country and in the years to come, this will become still more significant. From this point of view, greater attention will have to be paid to the problems of training and development of women. The education of girls, therefore, should be emphasized not only on grounds of social justice but also because it accelerates social transformation. Promoting women education is a challenging task and it required multipronged efforts for a solution.

Trade Balance between Pakistan and China

We always heard about the geostrategic importance of Pakistan. But never unearthed this so-called opportunity other than only for defense purposes in US wars against USSR and War on terror, but our relations as an ally with the US is still in a limbo due to distrust between Washington and Islamabad!  My topic is not analyzing the PAK-US relations but to highlight our approach to engage with new allies and take distance from old allies. We are just shifting our concentration from the US to China is in a most inappropriate manner i.e. disassociation with US and engagement with China in hurry/hustle with no assessment of risk and opportunity costs involved and there is no consensus from all stakeholders and policy experts and it looks like a One Man/institution show.

We are neighbor to three out of five emerging economies of BRICS i.e.  Brazil, Russia, India China, and South Africa. Other than defense lens, we never acknowledge our own importance in business perspective, nor do we try to approach almost half population of the globe living in these BRICS economies. The success reason of these economies is mainly due to their own population and serve it through indigenous products, and upon doing that they have experienced and able to compete with other MNC global giants.

Pakistan has very low trade engagement with neighbors as compared to others in the region like IRAN and INDIA. Yes Pakistan has larger trade with China but it is mainly one sided by overloaded imports as compared to exports i.e. almost 90% vs 10%. The country faces a trade imbalance of $30.5bn while the current account deficit reached a record-high of $12bn in 2016-17. Pakistani traders’ especially SME’s facing a lot of problems from Chinese authorities upon exporting goods via Sost-Kashghar Route. Pakistani agri-products normally disposed-off/perished while reaching Urumqi China and so many traders have been disappointed by these non-tariff barriers by Chinese authorities as well as lack of support and cooperation from Pakistani trade departments. In addition to this local markets have been flooded with smuggled Chinese products, which are sold openly with no fear from taxation and customs authorities, these practices resulted in low collection of tariffs and taxes. Imported and smuggled Chinese goods have complete domination in the local market and local manufacturers have discouraged by this import overlay and with prevailing electricity issues and have diverted the investment to other countries or switched their efforts and importing/smuggling goods from China. No official estimates are available as far as the market size of smuggled Chinese products is concerned. But people in local markets believe the value of smuggled goods can be higher than that of official imports.

Before engaging fully in upcoming China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) and One Belt One Road (OBOR), based on above empirical evidence we need to build strategic policies with quick actions to prevent the above economic losses and try to achieve the optimal benefit from existing and future trade especially with CHINA. Pakistani authorities need to table the issues of local traders with Chinese counterparts in order to balance out/narrow this Import-export gap. In addition to this there is a need of spreading the advocacy campaign with local consumers to give priority to local manufacturers. Yes this is not possible immediately but we need to build the capacity of Local companies through application of modern business philosophies. Pakistan is now home of more than 70% of energetic youth; we can concur to these challenges if we made policies for long-term vision with no short-termism behavior.

Hepatitis C, Its Causes & preventions

Hepatitis C is a liver infection caused by virus (HCV). Hepatitis C is a blood-borne virus. Today, most people become infected with the Hepatitis C virus by sharing needles or other equipment to inject drugs. For some people, hepatitis C is a short-term illness but for 70%–85% of people who become infected with Hepatitis C, it becomes a long-term, chronic infection. Chronic Hepatitis C is a serious disease than can result in long-term health problems, even death. The majority of infected persons might not be aware of their infection because they are not clinically ill. There is no vaccine for Hepatitis C. The best way to prevent Hepatitis C is by avoiding behaviors that can spread the disease, especially injecting drugs.

Symptoms and signs are

a)      Elevated liver enzymes in the blood

b)      Weakness

c)      Loss of appetite

d)      Weight loss

e)      Breast enlargement in men (gynecomastia)

f)       Redness of the palms

g)      Difficulty with the clotting of blood

h)      Spider-like blood vessels on the skin

i)        Abdominal pain

j)        Clay colored stools

k)      Bleeding from the esophagus

l)        Fluid in the abdomen

m)   Yellow skin and eyes (jaundice)

n)      Confusion

o)      Coma

Hepatitis C is not transmitted by breast-milk. However, a child may be inheritably affected by mother at the time of birth.

A very small number of cases of hepatitis C are transmitted through sexual intercourse. Poor infection control practices during tattooing and body piercing potentially can lead to spread of infection. There have been some outbreaks of hepatitis C when instruments exposed to blood have been re-used without adequate cleaning and sterilization between patients.Hepatitis C can be transmitted from an organ donor to an organ recipient. Donors of organs are tested for hepatitis C.

Hepatitis C is one of several viruses that cause hepatitis (inflammation of the liver).About 0.3% people are estimated to be currently infected with hepatitis C in the Multan district.

Several tests for diagnose are available to measure the amount of hepatitis C virus in a person’s blood (the viral load). The hepatitis C virus’s RNA can be identified by a type of test called polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that detects circulating virus in the blood as early as 2-3 weeks after infection, so it can be used to detect suspected acute infection with hepatitis C early infection.

Hepatitis C infection can cause the body to produce abnormal antibodies called cry globulins. Cry globulins cause inflammation of arteries (vasculitis). This may damage skin, joints, and kidneys. Patients with cryglobulinemia (cry globulins in the blood) may have

a)      joint pain,

b)      arthritis,

c)      a raised purple rash on the legs, and

d)      Generalized pain or swelling of their bodies.

Primary ways to control

  • Not sharing household items
  • Do not inject drugs
  • Eat a diet low in saturated and no trans-fat.
  • Drink 8 to 12 eight ounces of water daily,
  • Reduce sugar and high sodium foods.
  • Exercising regularly
  • Avoid fried foods.
  • Eat lots of fresh vegetables and fruits, choose organic if possible.
  • adhering to medication
  • taking an active role in medical care
  • Not using alcohol

Globalization and ICTs

Globalization has fast-tracked economic integration among various countries around the world with an exponential increase in free trade, overseas investments, capital flows from developed to developing countries, monetary and fiscal deals as well as changes in the information communication and technology (ICTs).

Globalization has been embedded virtually in all measures of life – from individuals to businesses, institutions, organizations, state, and government.  The flow of ideas, information, things, and goods has increased significantly.

After World War II, there have been lot of work by politicians that led to the agreement for the Bretton Woods Conference, in which major governments set down the framework for international monetary policy, commerce, finance and the formation of several international institutions such as The United Nations, The World Bank, The International Monetary Fund, and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) these have made significant paradigm shifts and developments in the global economies.

Rising globalization has more been promoted by fast-changing contemporary ICTs and the economic policies supported by the ideas of neo-liberalism. Because of these two developments, the globalization has captivated the big corporations and companies, and it has been very integral part and has made its roots entrenched. Furthermore, capitalizing on the politicians has captured the wealth and resources.

Today’s businesses have all been shifted to Information, Communication, and Technology (LCT) and in the last fifty years, it has witnessed a tremendous progress in globalizing the world businesses, trades, and economies.

In our days, the economies depend on the information because the development of computers, the internet, satellite communications, and telecommunications have all contributed a lot to the fast flow of information and data transfer from one country to another. The global news events and monetary transactions happen instantly across the globe.

Around the world today neo-liberal economic ideas dominate that help flourish globalization. This notion is based on free markets and trade, trifling government involvement and regulation. Not only are this but its more domains, it accentuates the competition, profitability, efficiency and growth. Ultimately, the beneficiaries of these policies are rich and high-fi business community.

The idea of globalization has unified the world economies through the power of ICTs. The international infrastructures have changed the system of free trade, which allows the increased flow of goods and financial transactions.  The main actors in this domain are the states, multinational companies, and investment banks that share the same economic philosophy.

The trajectory of Pakistan’s economy is growing to contribute to the reduction of poverty since last the few years. But its pace is sluggish because we lag behind in the advancement of present-day technologies that cause thriving of the economy.

Presently, we are expecting a lot from the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC). As it would make Pakistan’s economy globalized through familiarizing with new packages of information, communication, and technology. One of its initiatives has already been carried out in the shape of demutualisation and divestiture of Pakistan stock exchange.

Since the implanted ideology of globalization and neo-liberal economic policies has caused inequality and widen the gap between the rich and the poor in Pakistan. That today, there are 44 richest people in Pakistan against around 190 million populations.

To compete with accelerating global economy and to make it sustainable, we need to progress in the field of information communication and technology because, in future, the whole economy is going to be more digitized, globalized and ICTised.