Mechanism for curbing Environmental Pollution in Developing Countries

Pollution may be a negative externality – a value to society. In alternative words, Pollution is that the introduction of contaminants into the natural surroundings that cause adverse amendment. Pollution will take the form of chemical substances or energy, like noise, heat or light. Pollutants, the elements of pollution, is either foreign substances/energies or present contaminants. Industry and urbanization have intense environmental health risks and pollution, particularly in developing countries. Pollution, plumbism, inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene, and unsafe waste cause exhausting and fatal diseases, produce harmful living conditions, and destroy ecosystems. Pollution stunts economic process and exacerbates economic condition and difference in each urban and rural areas. Poor individuals, WHO cannot afford to safeguard themselves from the negative impacts of pollution, usually suffer the foremost.

According to the globe Health Organization (WHO), associate degree calculable twelve.6 million individuals die from environmental health risks annually. Pollution has become the fourth highest risk issue for premature deaths – one in ten deaths worldwide is because of pollution exposure. whereas the challenge of pollution may be a world one, the impacts are irresistibly felt in developing countries. Concerning ninety-five percentage of adults and kids tormented by pollution-related diseases sleep in low and middle-income countries. Scientists have long recognized the impact of pollution on health conditions like respiratory illness, chronic preventative pulmonic unwellness (COPD), cancer, upset, and low birth weight – all of that result in lost lives and reduced economic productivity. The foremost necessary event in recent history demonstrating this link occurred throughout the “Great Smog” (London) in 1952. For an amount of 5 days, a dense haze of pollution caused by vehicle emissions, power plants, and coal fires engulfed the town.

The smog, that was therefore thick it blocked out the daylight and triggered thousands of metastasis diseases. It’s still thought of the worst pollution crisis in European history. Specialists estimate that between 8,000 and 12,000 individuals died as an instantaneous result, and infinite others skilled long health effects. The globe Health Organization (WHO) recently declared that pollution is that the world’s largest environmental health risk. Pollution is formed of many elements with the WHO characteristic 5 air pollutants of major concern: ground-level gas, particulate, carbon monoxide gas, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide.


To reduce pollution, the government can use four main policies:-

  1. Tax to boost the value, e.g. Carbon tax, that makes individuals pay the social value of pollution.
  2. Subsidize alternatives, e.g. grant of different energy sources.
  3. Laws to ban sure pollutants: Limits on a variety of pollutants that may be discarded into the atmosphere.
  4. Pollution permits. E.g. carbon commerce schemes wherever companies are given the proper to contaminate a precise amount; these permits will be listed with alternative companies.

Moving forward, research on pollution should be remodeled into unjust policies by national governments, international donor agencies, and therefore the public health and medical communities. Firstly, government subsidies and tax breaks promoting polluting industries should be curtailed. These resources will be redirected toward incentivizing cleaner alternatives. Secondly, international development help ought to fund programs aimed at reducing pollution. By utilizing inexperienced growth strategies and up-to-date technologies, developing countries will leapfrog ancient mechanisms of economic process to expand their economies. Finally, international public health and medical communities, as well as national ministries of health, should formally acknowledge that pollution impacts human health. a brand new WRI/Oxfam operating paper presents choices for the way countries will incorporate targets, policies, and actions on temporary climate pollutants and key connected sectors into new or updated NDCs. this can permit countries to reap immediate climate and health edges whereas guaranteeing that those least answerable for our dynamic climate are not left to alter its progressively severe impacts.


Impact Of Climate Change On The Change Of Seasons In Pakistan

Any change in global or regional climate or a change apparent from the mid to late 20th century onwards and attributed largely to the increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide produced by the use of fossil fuels is considered as the climate change. Climate change is an established fact and its impacts on water resources, forests, agriculture, environment, health sectors and ENVIRONMENT INCLUDING SEASONS are quite visible around the globe. Climate change has great impacts on the change and shifting of the seasons.

Pakistan has four seasons; a cool, dry winter from December through February, a hot, dry spring from March through May, the summer rainy season from June to September, and the retreating Monsoon period of October and November. But these weather patterns have been altered due to rising temperatures and the increased Global Warming. On the other side, increased rainfalls cause tsunamis and floods including droughts too. Moreover, fogs and smog occur in the extreme winter conditions which disturb the normal human life. The global phenomenon of climate change is changing weather pattern across the country as summers are expanding, winters are shrinking, wet seasons are becoming wetter and dry spell is getting drier. According to the Pakistan Metrological Department (PMD), Pakistan’s Monsoon is under strong impact if climate change.

Shifting seasons are directly linked to warmer GLOBAL TEMPERATURES. A slight change in temperature is enough to push the spring earlier and delay the first frost. The environmental changes cause many trees and spring wildflowers to bloom earlier than typical. As a result, winters become shorter, spring arrives earlier, summers are longer and fall arrives later. The growing seasons are shifting. Now the winter season starts from early November and continues till the end January whereas previously it started in mid-October and continued till mid-February. Spring is arriving earlier, winters are shorter and the number of freezing days is declining. These changes affect the timing of many life cycle events such as flowers bloom or when pollinators emerge. Changes in the timing of these events can have adverse effects on the ecosystem.

“Wet spells have become wetter and will become wetter and will become wettest while the dry spells have become drier and will become driest.”

                                                                            (Mahr Sahibzad Khan)

Scientists have high confidence that the earlier arrival of spring events is linked to the recent warming trends in global climate disruptions in the timing of these events can have variety of impacts of the ecosystem such as, warm weather can create a “False Spring” that triggers the new growth of plants to begin too early, leaving them vulnerable to any subsequent frosts. Also, the prevailing weather patterns adversely affect the agriculture system of the country too. Humans are also affected by the changing weather conditions such as fogs, thunderstorms and windstorms affect normal routine. Food security is also affected due to changes in the seasons. Not only humans are affected, but the warming ocean temperature are also increasing the frequency of Coral Reefs Bleaching.

Discussing the reasons for the change in the weather patterns are the deforestation, rising levels of pollution, change in the land use, rapid urbanization, and unplanned industrialization are some of the contributing factors in enhancing the impacts of climate change in local conditions. These all factors disturb the growth of trees at the right time, floods, droughts, hurricanes, fires (forest fires), cold snaps, winter storms, tsunamis, heat waves, heaviest rainfalls, dust storms, fogs and other disasters that kill thousands of people in Pakistan. Also, the highest temperature ever recorded in Pakistan is 53.5 degree Celsius which was recorded in 2010.

Let us discuss the altering and changing of seasons with respect to the climate change; In the coming years rainfall in January, February and March will decrease further which will alter the plantation of trees and flowers and droughts, rainfall in April and May will increase which can cause tsunamis and flooding, rainfall in June, July and August will decrease and rainfall in September, October, November and December will increase slightly. Also the summer season in the country is expanding by one day per year and for the past 20 years till now the summer season had expanded by almost a month on both sides. Now the summer season starts in April and continue till early October while previously it was from May to August. And the winter season is shrinking by a ratio of half a day per year and so far it had shrunk by five days from both sides.


                                                                                 (TERRY SWEARINGEN)


According to the World Bank report, Pakistan has suffered 3.86 billion losses annually due to climate change. The reduction of natural resources, water shortage and food insecurity are some of the risk factors because of rapid climate change trends in Pakistan

The global phenomenon of climate change is altering weather patterns across the country as summers are expanding, winters are shrinking, wet seasons are becoming wetter and dry spell is getting drier.


  • Greenhouse gases.
  • Human activities.

The Districts are now tremendously vulnerable to floods/flash floods. Data suggested that annual rainfall in the months of January and February are reducing, rainfall in March, April, May, June, July and August are increasing while rainfall in September, October, November and December is decreasing.


“Climate change is no longer a far-off problem; it is happening here, it is happening now.”

   (Barack Obama)

In near-term years rainfall in January, February and March will decrease further, rainfall in April and May will increase, rainfall in June, July and August will decrease and rainfall in September, October, November and December will increase slightly, the data predicted. According to a data, the summer season in the country is mounting by one day per year and for the past 20 years till now the summer season had expanded by almost a month on both sides. Now summer season started in April and continue till early October while beforehand it was from May to August. Similarly the winter season is shrinking by a ratio of half a day per year and so far it had shrunk by five days from both sides. Now winter season starts from early November and persist till end January whereas previously it started in mid October and continued till mid February. Prevailing weather patterns will unfavorably affect the agriculture system of the country, said Maher Sahibzada Khan, Director Met office, Lahore. He said wet spells have become wetter and will become wettest while the dry spells have become drier and will become driest. Discussing reasons for change in weather patterns, he said deforestation; rising levels of pollution, change in land use, rapid urbanization and unintentional industrialization are some of the causative factors in enhancing the impacts of climate change in local conditions.

Impacts of climate change can be mitigated through massive tree plantation, proper urban planning, introducing stable flood management systems and increase in water storage capacity across the country. Impact of climate change include seasonal droughts, severe long-drawn-out droughts, frost, heavy rains, floods & flash floods, tremendous temperatures, odd rains, fog and strong winds, extreme summers, deficient seasonal rainfall, shortage of fresh/drinking water, extreme winters, diseases (malaria/dengue) and allergy (pollen).


  • Tree plantation.
  • Efficient use of energy.
  • Renewable power-sources must be used.
  • Water-loss must be controlled.
  • 3-R’s should be in practiced.
  • Environment friendly shopper bags and fertilizers must be used.
  • Conservation practices must be done.


These impacts can smash up water sector, agriculture sector (sowing and harvestings), and tourism sector and health sectors. In a recent monsoon rainfall allotment analysis by the Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD), it has been reported that over the past three decades the climate change has resulted in a 100 kilometers spatial shift towards west in the overall monsoon outline in Pakistan. Climate Change is the new catastrophe that needs to be addressed at imperative basis.

Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Mechanisms in Developing Countries


  • Adjustment in Response to climate stimuli
  • Moderates harms OR Exploits opportunities
  • Maybe anticipatory or reactive

Mitigation – reducing climate change – involves reducing the flow of heat-trapping greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, either by reducing sources of these gases (for example, the burning of fossil fuels for electricity, heat or transport) or enhancing the “sinks” that accumulate and store these gases (such as the oceans, forests and soil).

Adaptation – adapting to life in a changing climate – involves adjusting to actual or expected future climate. The goal is to reduce our vulnerability to the harmful effects of climate change (like sea-level encroachment, more intense extreme weather events or food insecurity).

Climate change is an increasingly urgent issue. Current estimates indicate that globally we are going to exceed a 2⁰C warming by the end of this century. The impacts of climate change are already being felt in several parts of the world. Adaptation is crucial, nevertheless, people’s ability to adapt is critically influenced by the kinds of knowledge accessible to them.

Adaptation to climate change is given increasing international attention as the confidence in climate change projections is getting higher. Developing countries have specific needs for adaptation due to high vulnerabilities, and they will in this way carry a great part of the global costs of climate change although the rising atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations are mainly the responsibility of industrialized countries.

How much climate change?

Which will be determined by how our emissions continue and also precisely how our climate system responds to those emissions. Despite increasing awareness of climate change, our emissions of greenhouse gases continue on a relentless rise. In 2013, the daily level of carbon dioxide within the atmosphere surpassed 400 parts per million for the first time in human history.

“Climate change is the biggest global health threat of the 21st century … the impacts will be felt all around the world — and not just in some distant future but in our lifetimes and those of our children.”

Developing countries are vulnerable to extremes of normal climatic variability, and climate change is likely to increase the frequency and magnitude of some extreme weather events and disasters. Adaptation to climate change is dependent on current adaptive capacity and the development models that are being pursued by developing countries. Various frameworks are available for vulnerability and adaptation (V&A) assessments, and they have both advantages and limitations. Investments in developing countries are more focused on recovery from a disaster than on the creation of adaptive capacity. Extreme climatic events create a spiral of debt burden on developing countries. Increased capacity to manage extreme weather events can reduce the magnitude of economic, social and human damage and eventually, investments, in terms of borrowing money from the lending agencies.

Taking an example

Pakistan contributes less than 1 percent of the world’s greenhouse gases blamed for causing global warming, yet its 200 million people are among the world’s most vulnerable victims of the growing consequences of climate change.

The nation is facing ever-rising temperatures, drought, and flooding that threaten health, agriculture, water supplies and hopes for the development of a society that ranks in the bottom quarter of nations, based on income per person. Pakistan is among 10 countries affected most by climate change, according to the 2018 Global Climate Risk Index released by the public policy group Germanwatch. Bridging the Middle East and South Asia, Pakistan is in a geographic location where average temperatures are predicted to rise faster than elsewhere, increasing 7.2 degrees Fahrenheit (4 degrees Celsius) by the year 2100.

Issues Facing by Pakistan:

The human activities like burning of fossil fuels, excessive smoke discharges from factories and the depletion of forests have led to an increase in the concentration of the greenhouse gases, mainly carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide, in the earth’s outer atmosphere which are responsible for trapping excessive heat inside the environment and thus increasing the overall temperature of the earth, leading to the phenomenon of global warming. Global warming has emerged as one of the major threats to our planet in this century. It has been proved that due to the increase of the greenhouse gases in our outer atmosphere, the earth’s temperature has warmed by 0.74°C over the last 100 years, leading to floods, famines, and droughts and cyclones among other natural disasters.

Policy Action for Successful Adaptation and Mitigation:

  • Accurate and Disaggregated data is absolutely essential
  • Improve the lack of a balanced approach towards addressing all Villages
  • It would be worthwhile to involve academic institutions to conduct surveys for assessing the adaptation needs of the various sectors
  • Many impacts can be avoided, reduced or delayed by mitigation