Role of Industrial Sector in Promoting Environmental Sustainability Cleaner Technology Perspective

In climate change dialogue, private enterprises and industries in particular have long been criticized for sacrificing the environment in pursuit of profit. They consume scarce natural resources and chug out smoke, liquid effluents and hazardous solid wastes that damage the environment. In many developed countries, strict environmental regulations and de-industrialization has greatly reduced the visible symptoms of environmental degradation. However in the developing world, the uncontrolled industrialization and lack of environment friendly practices are causing severe air, water and land pollution. The resulting environmental damage is often blamed on the inherent greed of private sector.

The advocates of private enterprise reject this blame. They point out that there is no evidence that industries are less polluting when they are publicly owned. Given the right incentive, private sector enterprises can be encouraged to research and adopt environment friendly technologies and practices. They further point out that majority of private sector enterprises are already trying to change their image from environmental villains by adopting environment friendly practices. Moreover, many private sector enterprises are actually making profit by assisting other enterprises in adopting environmental friendly practices.

Both of the perspectives noted above have some truth. However, we won’t get into the debate of whether private sector is actually a villain or a partner in environmental protection rather we will focus on mainstream debate on how private sector enterprises can ensure environment protection.

From a cleaner technology perspective, production efficiency and pollution control are two steps through which sustainable industrial production can be achieved.  From this perspective, private sector needs to adopt a holistic approach that takes into account the environmental risks associated with each phase in the production process and curtail environmental pollution through adoption of end of pipe measures. Occurring at the end of production process, End of Pipe measures refer to methods to remove already formed contaminants form air, water, soil, waste, product, etc. Once measures have been taken to reduce the hazardous pollutants, next step is to improve production efficiency. Higher energy and material efficiency not only improves the production levels but also keeps down the environmental burdens.

However, it should be kept in mind that this is not the perfect solution. End of pipe measures only provide a short term solution by reducing exposure levels of local residents. These measures often change the form of the pollution rather than eliminating it. For example, tall stacks only displace air pollution over greater areas rather than eliminating it. This approach can be contrasted with preventing contamination from occurring in the first place. We need strategies that solve the problem before they get into the pipe. We need both the source control (keeping pollutants out of the environment) and treatment (removing pollutants from air, water, etc). We need to find new ways of making industrial production environmentally sustainable without compromising the economic gains. For this purpose, we need a combination of government regulations, public – private partnership, research in environment friendly practices and pressure from civil society.

 

Climate Change and Urbanization

Pakistan ranks high in the countries that are most vulnerable to the climate change threat. According to ADB, by the end of 21st century, the temperature in the majority of the Asian countries will reach inhabitable levels. A temperature rise of 6 degrees Celsius is expected in the Asian countries, with an increase of 8 degrees Celsius in Pakistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and China.

We are already experiencing the climate change related impacts in Pakistan in form of hot summers, rising sea levels, unpredictable rainfalls, floods, droughts, and human displacement and these impacts will only grow worse in near future. This rising temperature and heat waves will not only endanger lives but will also disrupt the national economy, weather conditions, agricultural output, industries, and trade. It will deepen the vulnerabilities at all levels and will undermine any hope of achieving inclusive and sustainable development.

But solely blaming nature and climate change for Pakistan’s increasing vulnerability is not right. We need to move beyond our limited outlook and look at the multi-faceted reality of climate change impacts. A significant feature in this context is rapid urbanization and the related environmental degradation that amplifies Pakistan’s vulnerability to climate change. Incompetent urban planning, deforestation, industrialization, incompetent engineering, and land mining for development have degraded urban ecologies that could have better endured the climate change impacts. For example, Karachi, the industrial hub of Pakistan, is facing recurrent floods not only because of rainfall variability but also due to illegal developments that choke the city’s natural drainage system.

So, one of the biggest challenges that Pakistani government and policymakers are facing today is the transformation of cities into sustainable and environmentally friendly spaces. The top-down governance, the jurisdiction of federal and provincial authorities over land use, and a fragmented structure of local governance have given city mayors and chief ministers free reign over urban planning and their actions are limited to beautification projects and free transport corridors.

Authorities need to overcome the ongoing political struggles over resources, infrastructures, and services and need to focus on climate change adaption in the context of extended urbanization that pays attention to urban design, land use, and zoning interventions. The present condition of cities in Pakistan requires a proactive action that reshapes our cities and makes them environment-friendly spaces.

Climate Change: A Real Threat for Pakistan

In recent decades, Pakistan has faced extreme weather conditions such as floods, droughts, and cyclones that have killed and displaced thousands of people destroyed their livelihoods and damaged local infrastructure. For instance, the flood of 2010 killed 1600 people and the heat wave in Karachi during the month of June 2015 led to the death of more than 1200. These extreme weather events are a stark reminder that Pakistan is most vulnerable to the effects of climate change.

According to global climate risk index 2018 reported by German watch, Pakistan is the seventh most vulnerable country to climate change. This means that these natural hazards will only increase in frequency and severity in the upcoming decades.

The government of Pakistan has formulated various climate change policies and acts to tackle climate change threat, but their implementation remains a question. According to Zahid Hamid, Climate Change Minister of Pakistan, the government needs to implement climate change policy and projects that boost Pakistan’s climate resilience, set up early warning systems, and protect lives and livelihoods of people, through consultation and understanding with all the provincial units.

In this scenario, local communities and stakeholders should also be empowered so that they can participate actively in vulnerability assessment and implementation of adaptation and mitigation projects. Their inclusion will offer diverse perspectives and solutions along with an increase in a number of supporters and active participants in the climate change dialogue.

When it comes to the threat of climate change, all of us must do our part. We not only have a responsibility to reduce our individual carbon footprints by reforming our lifestyles but we also need to get involved at the community level to promote awareness. We need to take proactive action and make efforts to green our neighborhood, adopt environment-friendly practices, get involved in environmental protection programs, and support governmental actions on climate change. By joining hands and acting locally, we can effectively address the threat of climate change.