Food security as defined by the united nations committee on world food security is the condition in which all people, at all times, have physical social and economic access to sufficient safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Food security is a condition related to the supply of food and individual’s access to it. There is evidence of granaries being in use over 10,000 years ago, with central authorities in civilizations including ancient China and ancient Egypt were known to release food from storage in times of famine.
At the 1974 world food conference, the term ‘food security ‘was defined with an emphasis on supply. Food security, they said, is the availability at all times of adequate world food supplies of basic foodstuff, to sustain a steady prolongation of food consumption and to energize fluctuation in production and prices. Household food security exists when all members, at all times, have access to enough food for an active healthy life. Individuals who are food secure do in live in hunger or fear of starvation food insecurity, on the other hand, is a situation of limited or capricious availability of nutritionally passable and safe food or limited or mercurial ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways.
According to united states department of agricultural (USDA) food security incorporation a measure of resilience to future disruption or unavailability of critical food supply due to various risk factors including droughts, shipping disruptions, fuel shortages, economic instability, and wars. In the year 2011-13, an estimated 842 million people were suffering from chronic hunger. The food and agriculture or organization of the United Nations identified the four pillars of food security as availability, access, utilization, and stability. The United Nations (UN) recognized the right to food in the declaration of human rights in 1948. And has since noted that it is vital for the enjoyment of all other rights. The 1996 world summit on food security declared that ‘food should not be used as an instrument for political and economic pressure.
According to the international center for trade and sustainable developments failed agricultural market regulation and the lack of anti-dumping mechanisms cause much of the world’s food security and malnutrition.
Thus we can conclude that food security is of great importance because the greater security provided to food will leads to the healthier environment and healthy environment is perhaps one of the essential requirement for economic development. So, we cannot deny the momentousness of food security.
Climate change is an alarming issue nowadays which is faced by the whole world. It is affecting the life drastically. The main reason behind this sudden change in environment is deforestation. According to a review forest should cover 31 % of the total area of land but in Pakistan it exists on less than 4 % of the total area. Deforestation is playing a leading role to promote global warming, floods, soil erosion and heavy storms.
Global warming is associated directly with the rise in temperature; increase in the concentration of CO2 and depletion of ozone layer. Cutting trees is increasing the temperature due to less evaporation of water from the plant body surface. Less evaporation of water increases the temperature of biosphere and causes less rainfall on earth. In other way deforestation also enhances pollution of the environment and eventually causing acid rains.
Trees are the big source of oxygen production and help us utilize the extra concentration of CO2 (Carbon dioxide) in the atmosphere.
Due to a high concentration of CO2 atmospheric temperature is increasing day by day. Smog is also produced by the high CO2 concentration in the atmosphere through the terrific smokes on the roads. Last year, it was the big issue in the Punjab Province which caused many deaths through road accidents. Increase in the concentration of CO2 is also damaging the ozone layer and is depleting it gradually. Harmful rays emitted from the sun are prevented through ozone layer to reach on the earth. But due its depletion radioactive rays are penetrating from the ozone and striking on the earth. These rays are hazardous and cause cancer and many allergic diseases in humans.
Trees also hold the earth firmly by providing protection from the sudden environmental changes like floods. Mostly these are planted on the banks of rivers to make them strong. But due to increase in the trend of cutting trees, floods are occurring at an alarming rate and 2010 floods are a logical example of deforestation. Every year some portions of all the provinces are flooded with river flood. Flood is not only damaging our homes, buildings but also make our land barren through soil erosion. In this situation, soil nutrients are moved to another part of the earth. Thus soil fertility is decreased and it is converted to saline soil. Therefore, our land is converted into deserts gradually.
Trees are being cut down due to ever increasing population rate. There is no check and balance to control population. So we have to face this in the form of deforestation which is considered to be very dangerous for us and our coming generations as well. As like focusing on the food crops to fulfill the demands of food, there is a need to make strategies for trees planting along with other field crops. Paper industry is benefitting from use of trees but as compared to trees cutting, planting of trees ratio is very low. It is necessary to plant one tree in your lawn with the newborn baby for its oxygen source.
It is concluded that we have to plant trees more and more. Just as we celebrate other days we should also celebrate forest day with seminars and conferences for awareness and its implementation as well. This is the only way to get rid of the great issue of climate change. Grow more trees to make you and other people lives more pleasant.
Though I lived most of my life in urban areas my roots belong to rural areas and I spent a remarkable time of my life in a rural part of the country. There is a huge difference if I compare the time of today and time I experienced 5-10 years ago. I feel the change in the air I breathe and the path I walk on.
I see dull faces of farmers worried about annual yield and how they are going to pay their debts. Sadly, the government of Pakistan has not planned much about their agriculture sector on which 50-60% of their population relies on. Pakistan has the best canal and irrigation system in the world and we are not taking full benefit from this blessing.
We are witnessing a majority of rural sector migrating to the urban sector because of immense losses in agriculture businesses. Ultimately, population density in big cities increases rapidly causing other major issues. This is also a major cause of the falling economy, food crisis, and inequality. The rights of the farmers must be reviewed and their benefit must be made sure otherwise a major source of income would vanish within just a few years.
Especially the areas where Pakistan excels such as cotton, rice, and wheat production, it is God gifted that we have excellent climatic conditions for these. Pakistan needs to improve its production of corn, vegetables, and oilseed so that imports of the country are lessened. Pakistan has everything that needs to be in a developed country but unfortunately, we are not fully benefiting from those resources.
Agriculture is the backbone of the country has declined so much that it has become crucial for Pakistan to stabilize. So, if Pakistan promotes and invests in agriculture more like it should, it would definitely result in prosperity.
Yes, we can change future of migration. But there is need to overcome some critical problems existing in rural areas. According to my observation, natives of rural areas feel more comfortable to live in the land of love(Villages) than city life. But unfortunately, some factors like fewer income resources, poor education system, poverty, and hunger compel these people to flee their homes.
These problems can be addressed by awareness programs. Rural people mostly depend directly or indirectly on Agriculture. If Agriculture system can be improved then living style of rural people will become better. And it can also lead to increased food security.
The better Education system can also change the concept of migration. An educated farmer will do his agricultural practices in modern ways. So improved Education system, good transport facilities, political stability and awareness programs are vital to deal to change migration concept.
Growing population of urban areas is making food security even more challenging. So it is necessary to turn the future 0f migration by providing these people a balanced life style in rural areas.