Humans are facing the miseries of wars right from the ancient times. But the destruction of wars multiplied by thousands since the emergence of modern warfare technology. The mankind is facing a severe threat of vanishing from the mother planet, as technological advancement has resulted in modern lethal warfare tools like, “CHEMICAL, RADIOLOGICAL, BIOLOGICAL AND NUCLEAR ARSENALS”, capable of destroying “OUR MOTHER PLANET IN FEW MOMENTS TIME”. The tragedy with human intellectual capacities is that it has been used more for the pessimistic approaches than for optimistic humanly approaches. Interestingly, humans are feeling a threat from fellow humans and are using this massive technological advancement for killing each other with modern and innovative means. For example, the technology of drone is utilized for killing fellow humans to get the pessimistic material and non-material goals. Since, its inclusion in military fleets, it has killed thousands of humans across the globe.

My argument is that whole world especially the powerful actors in the global political need to focus their technological development for the betterment of mankind. The utilization of same technology resulting in the killing of innocent humans can be used for safeguarding them from different real threats faced by the mankind. “CLIMATE CHANGE IS ONE OF THE SERIOUS AND SEVERE THREATS FACED BY THE MANKIND”.  In all these fearful situations, good news has made us enlightened with respect to the positive use of technological development. Recently, a drone is invented which is very useful for quick plantation of multiple species of plants in a number of thousands.  The drone is capable of reducing workload together with reach out of areas which are hard to access. The thousand year’s loss of deforestation can be revived by utilizing modern drone technology by plantation scheme at a massive level across the globe especially the regions which are going to be severely affected by the climate change.

The drones are capable of aerial survey for identification of plantation zones. It can “DROP SEEDS INSTEAD OF BOMBS” from many heights with high accuracy resulting in a greater probability of plant growth.  It can also be used for monitoring purpose making it efficient in hard areas to access. The drone plantation scheme can be very useful in lessening the threat of climate change, a threat which can be assumed as much lethal as modern advanced warfare destructive capacities arsenals. The only thing difficult to understand about climate change is its hidden fatalness to mankind.

What I feel vital for the survival of humanity is social construction of patterns on all levels for the betterment of humanity irrespective of any discrimination. The fact which is to be understood by “ALL MAJOR STAKEHOLDERS” of the world in the global political system is that “ENEMY IS NOT THE FELLOW HUMANS BUT THREATS LIKE CLIMATE CHANGE”, which is silently making our world a dangerous place for living. We badly need to utilize modern technological advancement like “DRONES” for “DROPPING SEEDS NOT BOMBS”, to make this “PLANET A BETTER PLACE FOR LIVING”. And I have a belief, “YES WE CAN”

Agriculture and Women

Gender is a socially constructed discourse in Pakistani society between men and women. It is expected that both parties are to perform certain duties to fit in the society. Culture and religion dominantly support men in each and every walk of life. The concept of gender is debated and under extreme evaluation all the time. 

Today as we see gender has become an organizing element of existing farming system. Current trends in gender in relation to agriculture is redefining the link between gender and development. 

In developing countries, a portion of women involvement in agricultural production and post-harvest activities ranges from 20 to 70 %. 

This has led to deteriorating health and work conditions, limited access to education and control over natural resources, insecure employment and low income. This is due to many factors like growing competition on agricultural markets which increases the demand for flexible and cheap labor, growing pressure on and conflicts over natural resources, the diminishing support by governments for small-scale farms and the reallocation of economic resources in favor of large agro-enterprises. Other factors include increasing exposure to risks related to natural disasters and environmental changes, worsening access to water, increasing occupational and health risks.

Women tend to be employed for labor-intensive tasks, generally earn lower wages than men and are more likely to be paid at piece rate. Also, rural women typically work longer hours than men, when one takes into account both paid productive and unpaid reproductive or domestic and care responsibilities. When these tasks are taken into account, women’s total work hours are longer than men’s in all regions Mostly women in Pakistan, work for their husband, leading to no payment for their work. Women manage the household, cattle, water and post-harvest work in fields, while men do the easy part like sowing seeds etc. 

A number of other changes will strengthen women’s contributions to agricultural production and sustainability. These include support for public services and investment in rural areas in order to improve women’s living and working conditions. It will give priority to technological development policies targeting rural and farm women’s needs and recognize their knowledge, skills, and experience in the production of food and the conservation of biodiversity. Furthermore, it will assess the negative effects and risks of farming practices and technology, including pesticides on women’s health, and take measures to reduce use and exposure. Finally, if we are to better recognize women as integral to sustainable development, it is critical to ensure gender balance in decision-making at all levels. 

Insuring farmers – Adapting to Climate Change

Climate change is increasing the risks for farmers, but a new form of insurance may provide support.

As the risks of natural disasters due to climate change increase, insurance has been put forward as a potential way of supporting small-scale farmers in developing countries to help them to manage the risks.

Due to fears of natural disasters damaging their crops, farmers are likely to be risk averse and not invest sufficiently in their farms. Insurance can help provide a safety net and absorb the risks of potential hazards.

Having insurance can also build financial resilience as it helps farmers to access credit assistance more easily, allowing them to innovate and invest in technologies that boost productivity.

But farmers in developing countries have traditionally been unable to secure coverage through multi-peril crop insurance. This lack of access affects women farmers in particular, compounding existing problems with a lack of credit and financial advice.

To offer protection to these farmers a new form of insurance, known as index-based insurance, is gaining currency, particularly in the developing world. It pays out according to a predetermined index for asset and investment losses, such as the loss of agricultural crops. Index insurance is not designed to protect farmers against every possible loss, but instead support them against a large-scale or regional risk, or a particular climate risk.

Agriculture and Climate Change

Agriculture is both a victim and a cause of water scarcity. Water of appropriate quality and quantity is essential for the production of crops, livestock, and fisheries, as well as for the processing and preparation of these foods and products. Water is the lifeblood of ecosystems, including forests, lakes, and wetlands, on which the food and nutritional security of present and future generations depends. At the same time, agriculture is the largest water user globally, and a major source of water pollution. Unsustainable agricultural water use practices threaten the sustainability of livelihoods dependent on water and agriculture.
Additionally, climate change will have significant impacts on agriculture by increasing water demand, limiting crop productivity, and reducing water availability in areas where irrigation is most needed or has a comparative advantage. A growing number of regions will face increasing water scarcity. Climate change will bring greater variation in weather events, more frequent weather extremes, and new challenges requiring the sector to take mitigation and adaptation actions

Carbon farming and soil-friendly farming practices have become the calling card for climate change adaptation and mitigation for a simple reason: healthy, productive soils require carbon while a stable climate requires less carbon. Some of these practices have been well-known for some time but have not been adopted at the necessary scale, or have been discouraged by incentives and input subsidies that perpetuate unsustainable practices. No-till is one such practice

The concept of no-till agriculture resonates around minimizing soil disruption through obviating plowing of fields. Every year, roughly 60 gigatons of carbon enters the soil organic carbon sink as decomposing plant matter. Nearly 61 to 62 gigatons of carbon are lost from this pool as soil organic matter is oxidized by the atmosphere through tillage and erosion. Instead of plowing, farmers leave crop residue on fields after the harvest where it acts as a mulch to protect soil from erosion and a source of organic matter. This mulch reduces evaporation, which promotes water conservation and can be extremely useful in arid areas where water availability is limited. Crop residue furthermore provides soil organisms a source of food resulting in increased diversity of soil flora and fauna. Organisms like worms create channels in the soil that foster root growth and alongside the lack of tilling, contribute to a more stable internal structure that is resilient to environmental stressors and improves capacity for growth.

Under the right conditions, no-till is a climate-smart agricultural technique that supports food and nutrition security while providing resilience to climate change.