Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture

Pakistan is an agriculture country and agriculture is a backbone of the country. It is necessary to focus on agriculture to enhance food security, life quality and to support economic growth. Our country is ranked 28th country which is affected by the climate change severely. Pakistan is a country which is totally dependent on agriculture and 42.3 % people are earning money from agriculture sector. Now, It,s  contributation in GDP (Gross domestic product) is believed to 24 % which was 31 % in 1980-81 but in 2017-18 it is decreased to 18.9 % (Economic survey of Pakistan, 2017-18). Economy of any country cannot be improved without increasing agriculture production. The agriculture sector in Pakistan plays a pivotal role as the income of more than 47 percent of the population is dependent on this sector. From few years agriculture production is decreasing at high level. Now a day,s climate change has become an alarming issue which affecting crop productivity. Agriculture and climate change, both are interconnected. Last Century, temperature has raised 1 ̊C due to fossil fuel burning and deforestation which is still negatively affecting the crop production and environment as well. Due to climate change the growing season of crops has been decreased.

There are two season for the growing of agriculture crops in Pakistan. It is grown in Rabi and Kharif season. These two seasons play an important role in the economy of Pakistan. But agriculture production is also affected by climate change throughout the year. Temperature and precipitation are two different factors which are contributing in changing climate. Threshhold level of temperature is different for different crops and it is fluctuated day to day. If the temperature is enhanced from their threshold level, then it is very dangerous for crop yield. It is observed that 14 % of methane and nitric oxide are producing from the agriculture sector which are very dangerous for human health also. Last Century, temperature has raised 1 ̊C due to fossil fuel burning and deforestation which is still negatively affecting the crop production and environment as well. Due to climate change the growing season of crops has been decreased.

It is estimated that temperature will increase up to 3°C by 2040. Pakistan is very vulnerable for climate change and its affect on agriculture production. From last few years temperature is increasing with low rainfall. Rainfall has positive impact on agriculture production but negative impact of climate change is more as compared to positive impact.

It is concluded that it is necessary to shift crops according to their temperature before the onset of diseases.  Through adopting these strategies, we will be able to reduce the adverse effects of climate on crops production. There is need to make adaption measures to solve the problems of agriculture sector. To avoid green gas emission, implement industrial and nation energy policy which will be contributed to climate mitigation. To overcome the impact of climate change, should be changing cropping pattern, introduce innovative farm machinery and practices. Through the collaboration with plant breeders and providing them research facilities so that they will be able to develop such varieties of crops that have ability to face in all type of climate and produced high yield.