Imagine a day without water

Year after year our global population continues to grow, but the supply of fresh water remains the same. Not just the same amount, but the same water. The same drop of water you’ll drink today was here when the dinosaurs roamed the earth. It is our most vital resource—a person can only survive for a few days without water—and yet it can’t be manufactured or produced. Almost all our daily activities depend on access to clean water, but what would a day look like without it?

Imagine: You wake up and shuffle to the bathroom to brush your teeth, only when you turn the faucet on, nothing comes out. Your toilet won’t flush. You can’t make your coffee. Manufacturers sit idle without process water, steam, or cooling systems. There is no water to fight fires. Farmers’ fields go dry, impacting the food supply. A vital resource that people thought would always be there was turned off. As the reality of no water grows so does public concern and unrest, leading to widespread hoarding, rioting, and chaos. People are demanding that local officials do something. But what can they do?

Every organism is made up of water. Water is pumped throughout our bodies to support our organs. Plants and animals cannot exist without it. Two-thirds of the human body is water. Our bodies are really sacks of water walking around on dry land. People can survive for only three or four days without drinking. Camels have found a way around the problem and can survive for long periods without eating or drinking – as much as eight to ten days.

Think on places where there is no life like moon because there is no water. Water is only first think that can determine the settlement of human and withoutsimply water we cannot found the Egyptian civilization. The river Nileprovide adequate amount of water for Egyptian people that is God gifted for irrigation and drinking purposes.

Many people thinks that world has plenty of water as earth is filled up to 75 % with water. The modern man is eye witnessed with the water pressure, scarcity and shortage and thinks of preserving water. People only realize the importance of water when there is drought, during this time water is regulated. If water rationing continuous, people may found them in a worse condition because they rely on water to perform their daily duties.

Have we ever imagined a day without water, where all taps ran dry and we have to wait for specified time to get water for shower and brushing the teeth. Think when there is no electricity, people face acute and panic condition for water supply. This is only shortfall of electricity not shortfall of water. If water shortfall increase then story can be seen from a film “A world without water”. This is an eye opener film. It shows how rich survives and poor tends to die because of dirty water, lack of supply and accessibility. Too sad to see people of certain community being deprived by their own land’s water supply.

Rice Cultivation on beds- Save water

Pakistan has favorable climate and fertile soils for the cultivation of rice. However, water is limiting factors. Moreover, the existing irrigation practice for growing rice are wasteful. A huge quantity of water is lost during land precipitation and crop establishment which leads to excessive evaporation and deep percolation. It is observed that farmers generally apply more water to rice field for control of weed germination than what is needed for meeting the crop water requirement.

Rice is one of the major staple food crops in Pakistan. About 13% of the cropped area of the country is used for rice production. An average yield of rice in the country is the 2.95 ton/ hector, which is much lower as compared to 7.40t/ha for the USA and 6.19 t/ha for China. On average, the world rice fields uses about 1.4 m3 of water for producing 1 kg rice with a water use efficiency (WUE) OF 0.71 KG/M3 whereas in Pakistan it is less than 0.45 kg/m3.

A major reason for this WUE is the conventional flood irrigation practice i.e. growing rice under submerged conditions.  In the backdrop of increasing water scarcity, the farmers, researchers, and scientists are looking for new methods and techniques to improve rice yield and its water use efficiency. Planting of rice on beds is one the practices which can potentially improve rice yield and it’s WUE.

Pakistan council of research in water resources (PRWR) conducted series of experiments for growing rice on beds and conventional planting during 2011-2013 at its R&D center near Sargodha Punjab. Each treatment was replicated thrice. Under conventional method, on an average 144 cm of water was applied whereas water applied to bed fields was 112 cm. The amount of water applied under the bed and furrows was therefore, 23 % less than that for flooded basins. Average yield of rice grown on beds was 4156 kg/ ha whereas it was 3921 kg/ ha in flooded basins. The average WUE of rice grown on beds was 0.37 kg/m3. Whereas it was 0.27 kg/m3 under conventional practices. The average net income from the rice planted on beds was Rs. 129328/ha, whereas it was Rs. 115260/ha for the flooded basins. Therefore planting rice on beds has high potential for saving water without compromising the yield.

So like any other crops, rice has its specific water requirement and does not essentially need submerged conditions. Rice can be successfully grown on beds without compromising the yield with a water saving of over 23 %. Therefore there is need to demonstrate this technology to the farmers for its large scale adoption.