“IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THE CHANGE OF SEASONS IN PAKISTAN”

According to the World Bank report, Pakistan has suffered 3.86 billion losses annually due to climate change. The reduction of natural resources, water shortage and food insecurity are some of the risk factors because of rapid climate change trends in Pakistan

The global phenomenon of climate change is altering weather patterns across the country as summers are expanding, winters are shrinking, wet seasons are becoming wetter and dry spell is getting drier.

 MAJOR CAUSES OF THIS CHANGE:

  • Greenhouse gases.
  • Human activities.

The Districts are now tremendously vulnerable to floods/flash floods. Data suggested that annual rainfall in the months of January and February are reducing, rainfall in March, April, May, June, July and August are increasing while rainfall in September, October, November and December is decreasing.

 

“Climate change is no longer a far-off problem; it is happening here, it is happening now.”

   (Barack Obama)

In near-term years rainfall in January, February and March will decrease further, rainfall in April and May will increase, rainfall in June, July and August will decrease and rainfall in September, October, November and December will increase slightly, the data predicted. According to a data, the summer season in the country is mounting by one day per year and for the past 20 years till now the summer season had expanded by almost a month on both sides. Now summer season started in April and continue till early October while beforehand it was from May to August. Similarly the winter season is shrinking by a ratio of half a day per year and so far it had shrunk by five days from both sides. Now winter season starts from early November and persist till end January whereas previously it started in mid October and continued till mid February. Prevailing weather patterns will unfavorably affect the agriculture system of the country, said Maher Sahibzada Khan, Director Met office, Lahore. He said wet spells have become wetter and will become wettest while the dry spells have become drier and will become driest. Discussing reasons for change in weather patterns, he said deforestation; rising levels of pollution, change in land use, rapid urbanization and unintentional industrialization are some of the causative factors in enhancing the impacts of climate change in local conditions.

Impacts of climate change can be mitigated through massive tree plantation, proper urban planning, introducing stable flood management systems and increase in water storage capacity across the country. Impact of climate change include seasonal droughts, severe long-drawn-out droughts, frost, heavy rains, floods & flash floods, tremendous temperatures, odd rains, fog and strong winds, extreme summers, deficient seasonal rainfall, shortage of fresh/drinking water, extreme winters, diseases (malaria/dengue) and allergy (pollen).

 POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS:

  • Tree plantation.
  • Efficient use of energy.
  • Renewable power-sources must be used.
  • Water-loss must be controlled.
  • 3-R’s should be in practiced.
  • Environment friendly shopper bags and fertilizers must be used.
  • Conservation practices must be done.

CONCLUSION:

These impacts can smash up water sector, agriculture sector (sowing and harvestings), and tourism sector and health sectors. In a recent monsoon rainfall allotment analysis by the Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD), it has been reported that over the past three decades the climate change has resulted in a 100 kilometers spatial shift towards west in the overall monsoon outline in Pakistan. Climate Change is the new catastrophe that needs to be addressed at imperative basis.

ADAPTATIONS AND MITIGATION MECHANISMS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Mitigation addresses the causes of climate change (accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere), whereas adaptation addresses the impacts of climate change. … On the other hand, adaptation will not be able to eliminate all negative impacts and mitigation is crucial to limit changes in the climate system.

Climate mitigation is any action taken to permanently eliminate or reduce the long-term risk and hazards of climate change to human life, property.

The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) defines mitigation as: “An anthropogenic intervention to reduce the sources or enhance the sinks of greenhouse gases.” Climate Mitigation and Adaptation

Climate adaptation refers to the ability of a system to adjust to climate change (including climate variability and extremes) to moderate potential damage, to take advantage of opportunities, or to cope with the consequences.

The IPCC defines adaptation as the, “adjustment in natural or human systems to a new or changing environment. Adaptation to climate change refers to adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities. Various types of adaptation can be distinguished, including anticipatory and reactive adaptation, private and public adaptation, and autonomous and planned adaptation.”

IN PAKISTAN:

Analysis of past depicts that our climate is changing. The rate of change and the nature of the resulting impacts will vary over time and across the country, affecting all aspects of our life. In conjunction with efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, it will also be necessary to adapt to the impacts of a changing climate. Understanding what climate change will mean for Pakistan is only one step in that process. Future changes in climate of the magnitude projected by most global climate models would cause a major impact on our water resources, and subsequently affect food supply, health, industry, transportation and ecosystem sustainability. Problems are most likely to arise to southern parts of country where the resource is already under stress, because that stress would be exacerbated by changes in supply or demand associated with climate change. Previous record and projections by GCMs and RCMs depicts that extreme events (drought and flooding) would become more frequent and of greater magnitude in different parts of the country. These extreme

events would place stress on existing infrastructure and institutions, with potentially major economic, social and environmental consequences. Therefore, particular emphasis needs to be placed on the impacts/mitigation of such extremes.

IN INDIA:

There is growing evidence that the climate change do has implications for drought vulnerable India with studies projecting future possible reductions in monsoon related rainfall in the country. The existing drought risk mitigation and response mechanisms were looked into and gaps were identified by drawing lessons from previous disasters and response mechanisms. In absence of reliable climate predictions at the scales that make them useful for policy level planning, the emphasis was on identifying no-regret adaptation options those would reduce current vulnerabilities while mainstreaming the adaptation in the long run. The most notable climate change implications for the drought vulnerable India are the enhanced preparedness with due emphasis to the community based preparedness planning, reviewing the existing monsoon and drought prediction methodologies, and establishing drought monitoring and early warning systems in association with a matching preparedness at the input level.

IN BANGLADESH:

The linking adaptation to mitigation makes mitigation action more relevant to policymakers in Bangladesh, increasing engagement in the international climate change agenda in preparation for a post-Kyoto global strategy. This case study strengthens the argument that while combining mitigation and adaptation is not a magic bullet for climate policy, synergies, particularly at the project level, can contribute to the sustainable development goals of climate change and are worth exploring.

CONCLUSION:

In developing countries like Pakistan, India, Bangladesh are others there is entire need of maintaining a sustainable environment in which there is adaptive techniques applied for the maintenance of good humid and natural environment which is fittest for human and environment both.

GENDER DIFFERENCES

GENDER DIFFERENCES

Gender can be defined as the state of being male or female (typically used with reference to social and cultural differences rather than biological ones).

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines Gender roles as “Socially constructed roles, behaviors, activities, and attributes that a given society considers suitable for men and women”.

Gender equality, also known as sexual equality.

    It is the state of equal relieve of access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender.

    Including economic contribution and decision-making.

    The state of valuing diverse behaviors, aspirations and needs equally, regardless of gender.

A research done on gender portrays that female science teachers perceiving greater collegiality among teachers, higher gender equity among students, and stronger professional interest, and with male science teachers perceiving lower work pressure and better teacher-student relations. And it was concluded that the Gender differences in science teachers’ perceptions of collegiality, work pressure, and gender equity in the school environment persisted even after controlling for teachers’ backdrop and school characteristics.

The major issues women face in this era and before:

    Farming and Agriculture.

    Land ownership and management.

    Women’s property status.

    Man’s violent nature towards her.

    Harassment.

FEMINISM:

– The encouragement of women’s right on the ground of the equality of the sexes-

“WE CANNOT ALL SUCCEED WHEN HALF OF US ARE HELD BACK.”

(Malala Yousafzai)

“IF YOU WANT SOMETHING SAID, ASK A MAN; IF YOU WANT SOMETHING DONE ASK A WOMAN”

(Margaret Thatcher)

What is Transgender?

“Transgender is also a separate gender in which one is confused in his/her identity that differs from their assigned sex.”

  • Over 10,000 Trans-genders are present in Pakistan.
  • 1.4 million All over the globe.

Efforts that prohibit employment discrimination based on factors:

  • Race or sexual orientations require certain organizational changes.
  • Creating a transgender-inclusive workplace requires organizational changes (including personnel, policy, legal, and medical issues unique to transgender people.)

CONCLUSION:

    Recommendations are made to improve the implementation and enforcement of transgender-inclusive nondiscrimination laws and transgender-inclusive environment.

    For females, we have to develop a society in which violence and inhumane behaviors must not be tolerated under the provision of laws.

    For males, we need to lower down the financial burden and provide increased incentives with less work.

 

World Food Day

World food day

It is celebrated on “16 October” every year on a global scale. The theme of 2018 on “WORLD FOOD DAY” is…

“Our actions are our Future”

Food is the basic requisite which must be fulfilled by every citizen of any country and a person of every religion, and creed in any geographical regions.

Food is basically any healthy matter which any living being eats, drink or can gain energy and fulfill its daily needs from.”

Foodies are the people who have tenderness to eat food as their obsession and not just because of hunger.

Food in Different Continents:

European people like to have a beer, blini, crepe and specifically borshch. Americans are fond of southern bbq. African like cuisines. In Asia, foodies adore to have Thai-basil chicken. Australians like to have burgers simply while Antarticans are fond of having fish and other sea-foods.

Foods in Pakistan:

In Pakistan, diverse regions have different cultures and traditions in food also. Like Punjabis eat food having much spices and chilies e.g; nan chany, karahi, biryani etc. While the people living in northern western (KPK) used to have saltish food e.g; Balochis and the people of Gilgit like to have dishes having less salt and almost no spices e.g; Saji, sea-food.

World food day theme in 2017 was “Zero hunger” but unfortunately it is might be possible in 2030 it is beneficial to celebrate food day internationally to lessen the scarcity at any level.

Major reasons that why we need to act upon this zero-hunger slogan:

    It could save the precious lives of 3.1million malnourished children wide-reaching.

    Well-nourished mothers could have well-nourished babies in their laps.

    GDPA could be increased up to 16.5% by acting upon this line of attack.

    Economical enhancement can also occur as a result of this NO HUNGER system.

    A healthy lifetime earning is upgraded as a result.

    Eliminating the iron deficiency can boost-up the efficiency rate up to 20%.

    9.4% of work-force can be increased by dwindling the mortality rate among children.

    Increasing food would be helpful for creating a more prosperous, healthier and satisfied human environment.