Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Mechanisms in Developing Countries


  • Adjustment in Response to climate stimuli
  • Moderates harms OR Exploits opportunities
  • Maybe anticipatory or reactive

Mitigation – reducing climate change – involves reducing the flow of heat-trapping greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, either by reducing sources of these gases (for example, the burning of fossil fuels for electricity, heat or transport) or enhancing the “sinks” that accumulate and store these gases (such as the oceans, forests and soil).

Adaptation – adapting to life in a changing climate – involves adjusting to actual or expected future climate. The goal is to reduce our vulnerability to the harmful effects of climate change (like sea-level encroachment, more intense extreme weather events or food insecurity).

Climate change is an increasingly urgent issue. Current estimates indicate that globally we are going to exceed a 2⁰C warming by the end of this century. The impacts of climate change are already being felt in several parts of the world. Adaptation is crucial, nevertheless, people’s ability to adapt is critically influenced by the kinds of knowledge accessible to them.

Adaptation to climate change is given increasing international attention as the confidence in climate change projections is getting higher. Developing countries have specific needs for adaptation due to high vulnerabilities, and they will in this way carry a great part of the global costs of climate change although the rising atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations are mainly the responsibility of industrialized countries.

How much climate change?

Which will be determined by how our emissions continue and also precisely how our climate system responds to those emissions. Despite increasing awareness of climate change, our emissions of greenhouse gases continue on a relentless rise. In 2013, the daily level of carbon dioxide within the atmosphere surpassed 400 parts per million for the first time in human history.

“Climate change is the biggest global health threat of the 21st century … the impacts will be felt all around the world — and not just in some distant future but in our lifetimes and those of our children.”

Developing countries are vulnerable to extremes of normal climatic variability, and climate change is likely to increase the frequency and magnitude of some extreme weather events and disasters. Adaptation to climate change is dependent on current adaptive capacity and the development models that are being pursued by developing countries. Various frameworks are available for vulnerability and adaptation (V&A) assessments, and they have both advantages and limitations. Investments in developing countries are more focused on recovery from a disaster than on the creation of adaptive capacity. Extreme climatic events create a spiral of debt burden on developing countries. Increased capacity to manage extreme weather events can reduce the magnitude of economic, social and human damage and eventually, investments, in terms of borrowing money from the lending agencies.

Taking an example

Pakistan contributes less than 1 percent of the world’s greenhouse gases blamed for causing global warming, yet its 200 million people are among the world’s most vulnerable victims of the growing consequences of climate change.

The nation is facing ever-rising temperatures, drought, and flooding that threaten health, agriculture, water supplies and hopes for the development of a society that ranks in the bottom quarter of nations, based on income per person. Pakistan is among 10 countries affected most by climate change, according to the 2018 Global Climate Risk Index released by the public policy group Germanwatch. Bridging the Middle East and South Asia, Pakistan is in a geographic location where average temperatures are predicted to rise faster than elsewhere, increasing 7.2 degrees Fahrenheit (4 degrees Celsius) by the year 2100.

Issues Facing by Pakistan:

The human activities like burning of fossil fuels, excessive smoke discharges from factories and the depletion of forests have led to an increase in the concentration of the greenhouse gases, mainly carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide, in the earth’s outer atmosphere which are responsible for trapping excessive heat inside the environment and thus increasing the overall temperature of the earth, leading to the phenomenon of global warming. Global warming has emerged as one of the major threats to our planet in this century. It has been proved that due to the increase of the greenhouse gases in our outer atmosphere, the earth’s temperature has warmed by 0.74°C over the last 100 years, leading to floods, famines, and droughts and cyclones among other natural disasters.

Policy Action for Successful Adaptation and Mitigation:

  • Accurate and Disaggregated data is absolutely essential
  • Improve the lack of a balanced approach towards addressing all Villages
  • It would be worthwhile to involve academic institutions to conduct surveys for assessing the adaptation needs of the various sectors
  • Many impacts can be avoided, reduced or delayed by mitigation

Impacts of climate change on change of seasons in Pakistan

The term “climate change” is often used to refer specifically to anthropogenic climate change (also known as global warming). Anthropogenic climate change is caused by human activity, as opposed to changes in climate that may have resulted as part of Earth’s natural processes.


  • One of the four periods of the year (spring, summer, autumn, and winter), beginning astronomically at an equinox or solstice, but geographically at different dates in different climates.
  • A period of the year characterized by particular conditions of weather, temperature, etc.: the rainy season.


  • Pakistan is mainly depends on agriculture
  • Lacks of modern technical resources
  • Adequate monetary system
  • Water Resources
  • Forestry and Land use
  • Extreme Effects
  • Costal zones

Climate change is one in all the largest issues the complete world is jointly facing. The deterioration of the earth’s climate can be seen and felt most clearly in South East Asia, significantly Pakistan.

“Climate change is no longer some far-off problem; it is happening here, it is happening now”

Barack Obama

Climate change has been one of the most talked regarding issue, significantly since the beginning of the twenty 1st century. There are variety of things contributing to the increasingly erratic weather patterns being witnessed everywhere the globe, with carbon emissions being the major one. According to German watch, publisher of the temperature change Performance Index (CCPI), Pakistan is the seventh most vulnerable country to climate change. As a developing country, with abject financial condition and severely restricted resources, climate change has the potential to become the largest and most harmful problem for Pakistan in the future. But the saddest realization is that even if Pakistan is classified as one of the most vulnerable countries with reference to climate change, it is not a major emitter of greenhouse gasses. In fact, Pakistan’s emission levels are negligible, standing at a mere 0.7 % of the total world emissions. Simply put, Pakistan is a victim of climate change.

Impact of Climate Change in Pakistan

  • Social, environmental and economic impacts caused by climate change are of great concern in developing countries like Pakistan.
  • Pakistan is usually facing natural hazards like floods, droughts, and cyclones.
  • Pakistan’s greenhouse gases emissions have doubled in last 2 decades.
  • The seasonal changes are changing sowing time for crops which consequently changes irrigation requirements which modify the properties of soil and increase the risk of pest and disease attack, negatively altering agricultural productivity.
  • The recent studies indicate that Pakistan’s 22.8% land and 49.6% population is at risk due to impacts of climate change.
  • Climate change scenarios have resulted in an increase in the epidemic potential for 12-27 percent for malaria and 31-47 percent of dengue.

Some Ways to Reduce Climate Change

  • More and more trees should be planted.
  • Energy should be used efficiently.
  • Renewable power sources should be adopted
  • The loss of water in any form should be checked
  • Use eco-friendly appliances.
  • The treatment of industrial waste should be made mandatory all over the world.
  • Plastic should not be used. Environment-friendly shopper bags should be used.
  • Use of aerosol sprays should be minimized.
  • The misuse of fertilizers should be avoided.
  • Water should be used wisely.
  • The power generation should be done by environmental friendly means.
  • Conservation practices should be adopted regarding agriculture.

Food and its importance


World food day is celebrated annually on October 16th by 150 countries across the world is support of the FAO’s mission to use the event to raise awareness and to gather great support and understanding to the approaches that can help to end world hunger. This year’s theme calls for investing in rural development, for the international community to harness migration’s potential to support development and build the resilience of displaced and host community, thereby laying the ground for long-term recovery and inclusive and sustainable growth. Pope Francis has asked world governments to collectively work to end rising world hunger by working to stop the conflicts and climate-change related disasters that force people to leave their daily bread. Francis drew a standing ovation Monday at the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization, where he marked the U.N.’s World Food Day by calling for governments to work together to tackle the interconnected problems of hunger, global warming and migration.

In South Africa, one in four people do not have enough to eat, and half the population is at risk of hunger despite the country producing more than enough food, research by Oxfam shows. One 23-year-old mother who survives on piece jobs, often times only has R6 a day to feed her family of four.

Poor communities are squeezed due to lack of jobs, low levels of income, rising prices, lack of rights to land and water and climate change, an unfair, unsustainable food system that does not deliver sufficient food for everyone is largely to blame. Plus government policies are piecemeal, uncoordinated and under-resources. In addition, the food industry, which controls prices and availability of food, excludes small traders and farmers.

It’s a part of routine for many of us, our plates are stuffed with food and when unable to finish, the leftovers are easily scraped off into the bin. On many occasions, after large meals the leftover food is thrown away. It’s a common practice for many of the households without conceptualizing the magnitude of the global food waste in many countries. The amount of food lost and wasted every year is equal to more than half of the world’s annual cereal crops.

Seriously food waste is a national issue. Pakistan is a resourceful country the amount of food produced here can be sufficient for feeding the population, but lack of resources for food management and its distribution is the main problem. The food items include major commodities such as wheat, rice and sugar besides different vegetables and fruits. On the Global Hunger Index out of 118 developing countries, Pakistan is ranked at 107. To add more to these alarming statistics, it is estimated that 40% of food produced in Pakistan is wasted.

It’s a good sign that food banks are being set across the country, which try to reach out the hunger struck population. They collect the surplus food from various places and provide to the needy people. This food

after collection goes through quality assurance and after being sorted out is packed in small packages to be distributed.

Many NGOs are working for this cause, to utilize extra cooked food and give it to people who cannot afford a proper meal. This practice is conducted worldwide. A similar organization started this this work in Pakistan. In Karachi the Robin Hood Army commenced its activities in February 2015. Since its commencement it has fed millions in Karachi. Areas for food distribution are identified through scouting. The campaign is run by volunteers who are working professionals, students which also include school children. In Karachi more than 25 local eateries are contributing their leftover food for charity. In a detailed, many restaurants have their own policy for leftover food instead of throwing it away; they simply feed the poor on their own.

There is a war on food waste in many countries, like in France where the supermarkets have been banned from throwing away unsold food and restaurants must provide doggy bags when asked. By taking remarkable steps, France has secure top spot among the countries in food sustainability. France is the first country to introduce specific food waste legislation and loses only 1.8% of its total food production each year. By 2015 plans it further plans to reduce it to half.

Food sustainability is something which is being considered in the government’s agenda across the world. It is unethical and immoral to waste food resources when hundreds of millions of people remain hungry all across the world. We shouldn’t be relying on government, organizations, NGOs, food banks who work for reducing food waste. There is a need to adopt and promote a lifestyle that encourages sustainability for food resources and generate awareness for food waste reduction. Planning, preparing and soring food on an individual level can contribute to reducing food waste on a household level. Be mindful of old ingredients and leftovers you need to consume at first. By doing this you will waste less and may even find a new favorite dish by utilizing leftovers. When most of the items are kept neglected in refrigerators and ultimately discarded ending in bins. By making small changes in how you shop for, prepare, and store food, you cannot only save time but also money.

In 2012, the Food Network channel premiered a cooking show featuring world’s renowned chefs ‘The Big Waste’. The main feature of this cooking show was that the chefs who were competing in pairs to prepare a gourmet banquet meal, used food which was only intended for the landfill. That episode drew attention towards the issue of food waste.

If you can’t reduce wasted food, divert it from landfills. Landfill waste emits CO2 and methane, both of which are hazardous to the environment. Safe and untouched food can be donated to help those in need. Just look at the food wasted at weddings in Pakistan in particular. Together, this food can feed millions of people who go hungry. You can donate excess food to Robin Hood Army, who will surely collect and provide for the needy.

Gender and Environment

There is a general misunderstanding regarding what we have a tendency to mean after we refer to gender and environment. Gender mainstreaming refers to a policy of reflecting gender in all policies and programs and to examine the consequences of decisions on ladies and men. The subject of Gender and environment is way over gender mainstreaming.

The discussion of Gender and environment relies on 2 precepts:

  1. That gender mediates human/environment interactions and all environmental use, knowledge, and assessment; and
  2. That gender roles, responsibilities, expectations, norms, and also the division of labor shape all styles of human relationships to the environment.

When addressing gender in the context of the environment, it is important to recognize that women and men are not homogenous groups. Where women and men live, their age, social class, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation and other variables, interact in shaping the links between gender and the environment. This complexity must be accounted for in participation, needs analysis and programed design.

A gender analysis of environmental work should cover the following categories:

  1. Formal and informal constraints: Rules and norms that shape the behavior of male and female in society, gender relations and identities.
  2. Division of labor: The tasks and responsibilities that men and women are expected to fulfil in private and public arenas.
  3. Access to and control over resources: The resources, in a broad sense, that men and women have access to and power to decide over.

Why all time this happened to the female gender? There are some

  1. Causes of Gender Inequality:
  • Patriarchy
  • Discriminatory fosterage of children by parents
  • Illiteracy
  • Sociocultural and Religious Influence

There are some Facts Figures:

  • Women with full-time jobs still earn only about 77% of their male counterparts’ earning
  • 62 million girls are denied an education all over the world
  • At least 1000 honor killings occur in India and Pakistan each annually
  • 1 in 3 women experienced physical violence at some point in their life
  • Each minute, 28 girls are married before they are ready

Some solutions for handling Gender Inequality:

  • Equal treatment of children by parents regardless of their gender
  • Eradicating patriarchy
  • Equal Educational Opportunities for children
  • Instilling the notion of gender equality into kids at a tender age