GENDER DIFFERENCES

GENDER DIFFERENCES

Gender can be defined as the state of being male or female (typically used with reference to social and cultural differences rather than biological ones).

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines Gender roles as “Socially constructed roles, behaviors, activities, and attributes that a given society considers suitable for men and women”.

Gender equality, also known as sexual equality.

    It is the state of equal relieve of access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender.

    Including economic contribution and decision-making.

    The state of valuing diverse behaviors, aspirations and needs equally, regardless of gender.

A research done on gender portrays that female science teachers perceiving greater collegiality among teachers, higher gender equity among students, and stronger professional interest, and with male science teachers perceiving lower work pressure and better teacher-student relations. And it was concluded that the Gender differences in science teachers’ perceptions of collegiality, work pressure, and gender equity in the school environment persisted even after controlling for teachers’ backdrop and school characteristics.

The major issues women face in this era and before:

    Farming and Agriculture.

    Land ownership and management.

    Women’s property status.

    Man’s violent nature towards her.

    Harassment.

FEMINISM:

– The encouragement of women’s right on the ground of the equality of the sexes-

“WE CANNOT ALL SUCCEED WHEN HALF OF US ARE HELD BACK.”

(Malala Yousafzai)

“IF YOU WANT SOMETHING SAID, ASK A MAN; IF YOU WANT SOMETHING DONE ASK A WOMAN”

(Margaret Thatcher)

What is Transgender?

“Transgender is also a separate gender in which one is confused in his/her identity that differs from their assigned sex.”

  • Over 10,000 Trans-genders are present in Pakistan.
  • 1.4 million All over the globe.

Efforts that prohibit employment discrimination based on factors:

  • Race or sexual orientations require certain organizational changes.
  • Creating a transgender-inclusive workplace requires organizational changes (including personnel, policy, legal, and medical issues unique to transgender people.)

CONCLUSION:

    Recommendations are made to improve the implementation and enforcement of transgender-inclusive nondiscrimination laws and transgender-inclusive environment.

    For females, we have to develop a society in which violence and inhumane behaviors must not be tolerated under the provision of laws.

    For males, we need to lower down the financial burden and provide increased incentives with less work.

 

Gender and Environment

There is a general misunderstanding regarding what we have a tendency to mean after we refer to gender and environment. Gender mainstreaming refers to a policy of reflecting gender in all policies and programs and to examine the consequences of decisions on ladies and men. The subject of Gender and environment is way over gender mainstreaming.

The discussion of Gender and environment relies on 2 precepts:

  1. That gender mediates human/environment interactions and all environmental use, knowledge, and assessment; and
  2. That gender roles, responsibilities, expectations, norms, and also the division of labor shape all styles of human relationships to the environment.

When addressing gender in the context of the environment, it is important to recognize that women and men are not homogenous groups. Where women and men live, their age, social class, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation and other variables, interact in shaping the links between gender and the environment. This complexity must be accounted for in participation, needs analysis and programed design.

A gender analysis of environmental work should cover the following categories:

  1. Formal and informal constraints: Rules and norms that shape the behavior of male and female in society, gender relations and identities.
  2. Division of labor: The tasks and responsibilities that men and women are expected to fulfil in private and public arenas.
  3. Access to and control over resources: The resources, in a broad sense, that men and women have access to and power to decide over.

Why all time this happened to the female gender? There are some

  1. Causes of Gender Inequality:
  • Patriarchy
  • Discriminatory fosterage of children by parents
  • Illiteracy
  • Sociocultural and Religious Influence

There are some Facts Figures:

  • Women with full-time jobs still earn only about 77% of their male counterparts’ earning
  • 62 million girls are denied an education all over the world
  • At least 1000 honor killings occur in India and Pakistan each annually
  • 1 in 3 women experienced physical violence at some point in their life
  • Each minute, 28 girls are married before they are ready

Some solutions for handling Gender Inequality:

  • Equal treatment of children by parents regardless of their gender
  • Eradicating patriarchy
  • Equal Educational Opportunities for children
  • Instilling the notion of gender equality into kids at a tender age