Plant Breeding and Climate Change

Approximately two billion people worldwide already live in water-stressed areas and that figure is expected to rise substantially as the effects of climate change further reduce water availability, which can also lead to increased soil salinity. Incorporating stress-adaptive traits into crops that already have a strong agronomic package will be vital to provide yield stability in the face of changing environments.

Plant breeding leads efforts to help producers overcome the enormous challenges posed by climate change through the creation of new seed varieties with improved genetics from germplasm exhibiting stress tolerance.

Major Field crops such as wheat, corn, soybeans, cotton and canola receive a lot more breeding attention and funding than minor crops with lower acreages.As climate change it may become necessary to switch to crops that are more suited to new conditions rather than focusing on adapting other crops to be more resilient to drought, cold, heat or whatever prevalent conditions emerge.

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One of the most challenging aspects of adapting crops to climate change is maintaining genetic resistance to pests, diseases and weeds, which are all affected by rising temperatures and variations in humidity. Changing disease and pathogen distributions and increased movement of pathogens and pests across vast geographic distances all pose significant challenges to agriculture in changing climates.

Advances in technology have put many more tools into breeders’ hands. “Technologies like molecular markers and bioinformatics and other techniques are expediting the process of analyzing and assessing traits. It’s expected that breeding techniques will continue to play a role in advancing crop varieties and hybrids better adapted to abiotic and biotic stresses, as well as producing plants that can contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by increasing nitrogen and CO2 input-use efficiency.

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Pakistan, India and European Union, is it a workable Idea?

Former Swedish Prime Minister Mr. Carl Bildt has said that India and Pakistan could use the European Union as an example to find common ground and solutions. Apparently a catchy suggestion but really needs to work hard to analyze the statement in the light of more than half century’s history and the political motives and wills to set aside the matter.

European Union is an advance model of Federalism, which is covering an area of 4,324,782 km2, with an estimated population of over 508 million. Currently it is an economic-political union of 28 member states (Out of 51 countries of Europe). It has developed an internal single market through a standardized system of laws that apply in all member states. Within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished.  Currently, 19 member states are using the Euro currency. It is evaluated from a process of post World War II phenomenon and found its roots into the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952. It involves several treaties and acts, importantly can be mentioned as Brussels Treaty, Paris Treaty, Modified Brussels Treaty, Merger Treaty, Schengen Treaty, Single European Act and so on. With the period of time, European Union is grown from six founding members to the current 28 states. Country, who is intending to be the part of the EU, will be the party of the treaties in order to achieve the benefits and follow the obligations. This is what the beauty of Federalism that states are voluntarily coming together. When we study each of the members of the union, we can draw some general conclusions as follows:

  • All member states are sovereign
  • They promote their languages and culture

Basically it is a politico- economical setup to develop a common market, which eventually becomes a single market. They have in this way also controlled the Germany to think anymore about any offensive step. If Pakistan and India are really smart enough and able to tackle their extremist factors, taking China as role model to show the patience and down to earth strategy to gain something worthy, it will be a breakthrough for the region and for both the countries. Unfortunately, the history of Pakistan telling harsh stories that how it has betrayed its confederating units. The big example is the separation of Bangladesh. The other states are seemingly not too much happy with it. Thus, it would be very challenging to build the trust and carry forward the commitments.

Climate change and causes of global warming

Climate change defined as: “Long term weather patterns and trends becoming different over an extended period of time”

For example if the average temperature in Pakistan  over the 20th century is significantly higher or lower than the average temperature in Pakistan over the 19th century this would be an example of climate change.

Global warming and climate change in reality the two terms means different things have both been used for decades. Climate change again as the name suggest, refers to the changes in global climate which result from increasing average global temperature. For example changes in precipitation patterns, increased prevalence of drought, heat waves and other extreme weather etc. In general there are 10 indicators with the help of which we can detect climate change and global warming. There are 7 indicators that would be expected to increase in a warming world and 3 indicators would be expected to decrease.

Changes in climate can result from both natural events and human activities. Examples for natural events are volcanic eruptions, variation in earth’s orbit around sun and variation in solar output. Examples for human induced causes are industrial pollutant and fossil fuels, warming of average annual temperature due to urbanization and changes in earth’s albedo due to deforestation of tropical rainforest.

Earth temperature depends on the balance between energy entering and leaving the planet’s system. When incoming energy from the sun is absorbed by earth system, Earth warms when energy is reflected back into the space. Earth avoids warming when energy is released back into the space. Earth cools many factors both natural and human can cause changes in earth’s energy balance.

Our lives are connected to the climate. Human societies have adapted to the relatively stable climate we have enjoyed since the last ice age which ended several thousand years ago. A warming climate will bring changes that can affect our water supplies, power and transportation system, natural experiments and even our own health and safety. Carbon dioxide can stay in atmosphere for nearly a century so earth will continue to warm in coming decades. The warmer it gets, the greater the risk for more severe changes to climate and earth’s system. It is difficult to predict the exact impacts of climate change.

ماحولیات جو کہ ایک انسان کا مسکن

ماحولیات جو کہ ایک انسان کا مسکن ہے۔ اور مسکن اگرآلودہ ہو تو انسان کا جیون بے حد مشکل ہو جاتا ہے۔ ضروریاتِ زندگی جن میں سب سے اہم ہوا ہے ا گر وہی آپ کے لیے زہرِقاتل ثابت ہو توکیا آپ زندہ رہ سکتے ہیں؟ یہ ایک ایسا سوال ہے جو ہر ذی شعور کے ذہن میں گونجتا ہے اور اِس سوال کا جواب بھی سب بہتر طور پر جانتے ہیں اور جواب کے بعد ہر انسان اُس کا حل بھی جانتا ہے لیکن کوئی بھی انسان اُس حل کو اپنانے کو تیار نہیں۔
ہماری قوم جب بھی احتجاج کرنے لگیں یا اپنے حقوق کی جنگ لڑیں تو وہ حقوق مانگنے کی بجائے اپنے ہی حقوق صلب کرتے ہیں۔ وہ کچھ اِسطرح کہ ہم ہر احتجاج میں گاڑیوں کے ٹائر جلانے کو ترجیح دیتے ہیں۔ ہمیں لگتا ہے کہ اِسطرح حکومت کی توجہ حاصل کرنے میں کامیاب ہو جائیں گے لیکن ہم یہ نہیں جانتے کہ اُن ٹائروں میں موجود کاربن کتنی زہریلی اور مہلک ہے۔ ایک ٹائر میں موجود کاربن پچیس برس تک ماحول میں گردش کر تی رہتی ہے اور انسان کے لیے سانس لینا بھی مشکل ہو جائے گا اگر پاکستان میں بڑھتے ہوئے احتجاج کلچر میں کاربن کا اخراج جاری رہا۔ 
یہ تو ماحول کی بربادی کا ایک پہلو ہے۔ اِسی تباہی کی ایک وجہ پاکستان میں موجود 222۴ جنگلات کابیدریغ کٹاؤ بھی ہے۔ شمالی علاقہ جات میں گیس فراہم نہیں کی گئی وہاں کے لوگ جنگلات کو کاٹ کر ایندھن کے طور پر استعمال کرتے ہیں اور بیشمار لکڑی وہاں سے اسمگل ہو کر شہروں میں بکتی ہے۔ اِسطرح جنگلات کی کمی سے زمینی کٹاؤ بڑھتا جا رہا ہے۔ شہروں میں توگاڑیوں کی وجہ سے ماحولیاتی اہکٓلودگی بڑھتی جا رہی ہے لیکن اب یہ آلودگی پہاڑی علاقوں تک بھی بڑھ رہی ہے اور اس ماحولیاتی تپش کی وجہ سے برفانی تودے پگھل رہے ہیں۔ ایک طرف صدیوں کا پانی کا ذخیرہ کم ہوتا جا رہا ہے اور دوسری طرف وہی پانی سیلاب کا باعث بن کر فصلوں اور کئی دیہات کو تباہ کردیتا ہے۔ ۱۹۴۷ء میں جب پاکستان بنا تو بغیر کسِی ماحولیاتی پالیسی کے پاکستان چلتا رہا۔ آج بھی ہم لینڈ سکیپ کو بغیر کسی ماحولیاتی پالیسی کے چلائے جا رہے ہیں۔
ہم وہ پودے لگا رہے ہیں جو ہمارے ماحول سے مطابقت نہیں رکھتے۔ وہ پودے لگائے جا رہے ہیں جوالرجی کا باعث بن رہے ہیں۔ ہم نے دوسرے ممالک سے بغیر کورآنٹان چیکنگ کے پودے درآمد کیے جس کی وجہ سے کئی بیماریاں ہمارے پودوں مع منتقل ہو گئیں۔
ضرورت اِس امر کی ہے کہ ہم ماحولیاتی پالیسیوں کومرتب کر کے اُنہیں نافذکریں۔ جنگلات کے کٹاؤ پر پابندی لگائیں۔ دھواں چھوڑنے والی پرانی گاڑیوں پر پابندی لگائیں اور پہاڑی علاقوں میں بڑھتی ہوئی تابکاری کو روکنے کے لیے اقدامات کیے جائیں۔