Why Pay for Tax

People work hard and earn money which ideally they would like to retain for themselves. However, a significant portion of this usually has to be given to the state. In my view, it is right that people pay their fair share of taxes.

Money is everything in today’s livelihoods. This is because money is used to buy all the necessities such as food, water, and shelter. Money is also used to help a family’s children in the form of school fees and other activities. In addition to this, people do not only need money to cater for their necessities, but also for future investments. The more that people have to invest, the more they believe they can accumulate in the long term. As a result, many are reluctant to lose some of their income through the deduction of tax.

Nevertheless, citizens should be obliged to pay taxes to the government for a number of reasons. They should accept that the taxes they pay help the government offer them the public services all over the country. These public services are things such as the construction of roads, bridges, public hospitals, parks and other public services. The same tax money helps the country’s economy to be stable. Through taxes, the government can pay off its debts. In short, tax money is a way of ensuring that people have comfortable livelihoods.

In conclusion, even though many people think that they should not pay taxes, that money is useful to the stability of any country. Therefore, people should not avoid paying taxes as it may affect the country’s economy and services that it provides.

Status of Youth in Pakistan

He was only eight years old when told to go and graze buffaloes. He had an innocent face, sparkling eyes, bright mind, sharp nose and tender hands. He would go barefooted with a stick in his hand and an onion in his pocket for his lunch. This practice went almost for many months. In addition, he also used to help his parents in agriculture, livestock rearing, wood-cutting and labor work. His parents were poor and unschooled. Instead of books and pens in his hand, he had axe and spade. This was merely the reflection of poverty, he was saddled with.

Out of necessity, he pulled himself away from dark village life into the intriguing city life. While working as a common laborer a lucky encounter with a social activist helped him get into the state school system. Working part time, he worked hard and graduated from university. The poor quality of education, he received meant that like most poor and marginalized semi-educated youth in Pakistan, he could not get a reasonable job. Like other youth around him, he was mired in the vicious cycle of nepotism, rising inequality, and egocentricity. After graduation, he started wandering hither and thither for survival, knocked the doors of the factionalized elites and so-called politicians, but none was the result rather than the rebuff. Because in the country like ours jobs are sold as the things are sold in the market. After all the struggles, he has dedicated himself the work his forefather used to do – farming.

This is the story of a poor Pakistani youth representing the current two-third of Pakistan’s population, at the minimum 9.8% male and 12.3% female youth are unemployed. 32% of youth in Pakistan are uneducated with no vocational skills, making this section of society vulnerable to violence and radicalism. Most of the educated youth are leaving this country and serving in the Middle East, Europe, Australia, Canada and the US. According to Youth Development Index (YDI) 2016, out of 183 countries, Pakistan stands at 154, India is at 133, Syria (war-torn area) 137 and Bangladesh 147 and worst of all instead of improving Pakistan is one of three countries where a situation has gotten worse from 2010 to 2015.

The lack of education facilitates means that nearly 25 million youth and children (particularly girls) in Pakistan these days do not go to the schools and colleges because of structural poverty. According to Pakistan Education for All Review Report 2015 that youth ages from 15-24 literacy rates have amplified over the past decade but at a very low pace principally due to limited budgetary distributions for youth education and absence of any strong coordination and management mechanism or effective strategy for reaching the most vulnerable groups. These rates rose from 63% in 2001/02 to 72% by 2012/13, yielding an average annual increase of less than 1%. According to the Labor Force Survey 2014-15, the labor force participation rate among youth (ages 10-24) is 41.3% among males and 16.4% females.

The youth bulge is the future hope for dynamic, tolerant and progressive Pakistani society. Pakistan recently has adopted Global Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and reiterates the commitment to invest in youth as a development strategy. Productive and progressive society can only be driven by this energetic and enthusiastic lot of youth in the country. Lamentably, youth in Pakistan is stuck in vicious cycle of myriad challenges in the shape of extreme inequality, unemployment, poverty, patriarchal nature of society, political capture, uncertain law and order situation, gender discrimination, inadequate education facilities. Moreover, the youth women are particularly affected and face discrimination in their daily lives. The educated young womenfolk in our mainstream society are not accepted and are discriminated in all spheres of life.

The future hope of Pakistan is captured in political arena resulting economic inequality and rising poverty. I apologize to say to the factionalized elites of Pakistan. We forever will remain uneducated, but you send your children to private institutes not only in Pakistan but in the well-reputed world universities. We may remain unemployed, but you make your children business-man. No problem, if we are poor, but you buy million rupees watches for your children. It is alright if we are unfortunate, but you purchase million rupees luxurious car for your children. Certainly, when we get sick have to die because of no money for treatment, but you gets treatment for your children in expensive private hospitals because they have to rule on us, but our children have to cultivate lands. This is good you have wealth eat in expensive hotels with multiple dishes. We are hungry and helpless eat dry meals with water.

Our system depicts the miserable picture of bad governance, rampant institutional corruption, economic inequalities and widespread terrorism. Therefore, instead of developing a just and fair society, we are supporting unmerited and unjust behaviors in the society. Of such society, what we can expect neither great leaders nor intellectuals. Of that situation, we all are responsible and contributing bit by bit – our schools, colleges, universities, parents and of course system, because whatever is the input so is the output and from that output what impact we likely can derive. Today’s Pakistan reflects the impact of what we have been cultivating for decades.

اقتصادي ترقي ۽ عام زندگي ۾ عورت جو ڪردار

سماج ۾ عورت جي لازوال ڪردار، عظمت، اڻٿڪ محنت ۽ جدوجهد کي ڪڏهن به نظرانداز نٿو ڪري سگهجي. دنيا جو چرکو بغير عورت جي هلي ئي نٿو سگهي. ڇو ته انسان جي فطرت ۾ عورت جو ظهور ٿيل آهي. جيڪو عمل انسان جي فطرت ۾ شروع کان وٺي هلندو پيو اچي يا پيوند ٿيل آهي. اِهو، اُهو ئي تسلسل آهي جيڪو اسان کي ترقي جي رستي تي گامزن ڪرڻ ۾ مددگار ثابت ٿيندو پيو اچي. تنهنڪري جيڪڏهن سگهاري عورت هوندي ته اسان جو اقتصادي، معاشرتي، احساساتي، ذهني، ۽ اخلاقي اقدار به سگهارا هوندا. جيترو اسان عورت جي ترقي ۾ سيڙپڪاري ڪنداسين ان کان ٻيڻ تي اسان کي انهن مان فائدو ملندو.

 ان کان علاوه عورت خانداني اداري ٺاهڻ ۽ هلائڻ ۾ ڪنهن به لالچ ۽ لوڀ کان سواءِ پنهنجو ڪردار خوش اصلوبي، سچائي ۽ لڳن سان ادا ڪندي آهي. نه صرف اهو پر اخلاقي سماج جوڙڻ ۾ هڪ عورت جو اهم ڪردار رهيو آهي. عورت صرف عورت نه آهي پر ڪائنات جو هڪ اهڙو حسين ۽ خوبصورت تحفو آهي، جنهن ۾ محبت ۽ پيار جا ڏيئا هر وقت ٻرندا رهندا آهن. عورت هڪ اهڙي هستي آهي جنهن افلاطون، ارسطو، سقراط، ڊيڪارت، والٽيئر، روسو ۽ ٻين اهڙن هزارهان دانشورن ۽ ڏاهن کي پنهنجي ڪوڪ مان جنم ڏنوآهي. اسان چاهي ڪهڙي به دور جي ڳالهه ڇو نه ڪيون هر دور ۾ عورت جي ڪردار جي ڪڏهن به نفي نٿي ڪري سگهجي. ڇو ته عورتن جي لازوال قربانين کان سواءِ اسان ڪڏهن به سماج ۽ معاشري جي جوڙجڪ صحيح انداز سان نٿا ڪري سگهون.  

عورتن جيڪو به اڄ مقام حاصل ڪيو آهي اِهو انهن پنهنجي محنت ۽ جدوجهد سان حاصل ڪيو آهي. مرد حاوي معاشري ۾ عورت کي ڪمتر ۽ گهٽ عقلمند سمجهيو ويندو رهيو آهي. پر اڄ جنهن دور ۾ اسان رهون پيا ان دور ۾ عورتن کي پنهجا حق وٺڻ جو ڏانءُ اچي ويو آهي. تنهن هوندي به  پاڪستان جهڙي روايتي سماج ۾ عورت کي اڃان به ڪم نگهائي سان ڏٺو ويندو آهي يا ان کي ڪمتر سمجهيو ويندو آهي. پر اِهو وقت ڏور ناهي جڏهن عورت جي ترقي سان ملڪ جي مجموعي اقتصادي ترقي ۾ بي پناهه تبديليون اچڻ واريون آهن.

جڏهن اسان عورت جي عملي ڪردار کي وڌيڪ جانچڻ يا جهنجوڙڻ جي ڪوشش ڪنداسين ته حقيقتون اسان جي اڳيان آشڪار ٿينديون.  جيڪڏهن عورت جي زندگي جو تجزيو ڪجي ته اها مڪمل محنت، ظبط، پابند، مستقل مزاجي، تنظيم، ڪنٽرول، قوتِ برداشت، جدوجهد ۽ عملن ڪم ۾ رڌل هڪ لازوال ۽ بي مثال ادارو آهي. عورت جيڪڏهن ماءُ آهي ته هوءَ پنهنجن ٻارن جي پرورش ڪنهن به لوڀ ۽ لالچ کانسواءِ ڪندي آهي. پنهنجن ٻارن لاءِ راتن جا راتون اوجاڳا ڪري ٿي انهن جي هر قسم جي نخرن کي پيار ۾ تبديل ڪري ٿي. جيڪڏهن ٻار کي ڪو ڌڪ لڳي ٿو ته ٻار کان وڌيڪ درد ماءُ کي ٿيندو آهي. ماءُ ۽ ٻار جو هڪ اهڙو آفاقي رشتو آهي جنهن ۾ محبت، شفقت، پيار، سچائي ۽ ايمانداري آهي. ٻار جڏهن اسڪول وڃڻ جي قابل ٿي ويندا آهن ته ماءُ صبح جو سوير اٿي ٻار کي تيار ڪري ان جي ناشتي ۽ لنچ جو بندوبست ڪري ٿي. ان کي اسڪول به ڇڏي اچي ٿي. ان کان پوءِ وري مڙس اٿي ٿو ان جو ناشتو، ان جا ڪپڙا ۽ شوز کي صاف ڪري ٿي. مڙس کي آفيس رواني ڪرڻ کان پوءِ گهر جي صفائي، ڪپڙا ڌوئڻ، ۽ اهڙا سوين ٻيا ڪم آهن جيڪا عورت سرانجام ڏيندي رهندي آهي. وري لنچ جو ٽائيم، لنچ تيار ڪندي آهي ٻارن کي سنڀاليندي آهي اهڙي طريقي سان وري رات ٿي وئي سڀني جي پنهنجي پنهنجي فرائش هوندي آهي انهي فرمائش مطابق کاڌو پچندو آهي. اهو سائيڪل يا ڦيرو عورت جي زندگي ۾ پوري زندگي هلندو رهندو آهي.  

عورتون جيڪي ٻهراڙي جي علائقن ۾ رهن ٿيون اهي به پنهنجن ٻارن جي، مڙس جي ۽ پنهنجي خاندان جي بي لوس خدمت ڪنديون رهنديون آهن. ان کانسواءِ ٻهراڙي ۾ عورت جي زندگي تمام گهڻي ڪٺن ۽ سخت هوندي آهي ڇو ته ٻهراڙي جي عورت جسماني ڪم مردن کان گهڻا ڪندي آهي. عورت روڊ رستن جي تعمير ۾ مزدوري ڪندي ملندي، ٻڪريون چاريندي ۽ گاهه وڍيندي ملندي، کير ڏوهيندي ۽ ڪاٺيون ڪندي ملندي، لاڀارا ۽ ويهر ڪندي ملندي، ڳوٺن ۾ پاڻي ڀرڻ به عورت جي زميواري ۾ شامل آهي دلا مٿي تي کڻي عورت ڪلوميٽرن جا ڪلوميٽر طيءَ ڪري پاڻي ڀري ايندي آهي، ڇيڻا سڪائيندي آهي، ڀرت ڀريندي آهي ۽ ٻيا اهڙا درجنين ڪم آهن جيڪي عورت خوشي ۽ ان کي للڪار سمجهي ڪندي آهي. ايتري ته عظيم آهي عورت! جنهن اڻڳڻت ڪم پنهنجي ضمي کنيا آهن ۽ انهن ڪمن کي تمام سٺي طريقي ۽ خوش اصلوبي سان ڪندي پئي اچي.

اڄ جيڪڏهن عورت جا ڪم مرد جي ذمي ڪيان وڃن ته ڇا ٿيندو؟ ڇا مرد اهي ڪم ڪري سگهندو؟  آئون دعوا سان اهو چوان ٿو ته مرد ڪڏهن به عورت وارا ڪم نه ڪري سگهندو، ڇو ته ان کي عادت ئي ناهي صرف هڪ ڪلاڪ جڏهن ننڍي ٻار کي پرچائي ٿو يا ان جي سارسڀنال لهي ٿو ته هن کي خبر پئجي ويندي آهي ته عورت جو ڪم ڪيترو ڏکيو آهي. جيڪڏهن هڪ وڳو ڪپڙن جو استري ڪندو آهي ته همراهه کي خبر پئجي ويندي آهي ته عورت ڪيتري عظيم آهي. تنهنڪري ڪڏهن ٿوري دير ويهي سوچ ويچار ڪجي ته عورت ڇا ڇا نه ڪندي آهي. پنهنجي گهر ۽ خاندان کي هلائڻ لاءِ توهان اچرج ۾ پئجي ويندو.

ان کان علاوه عورت جيڪڏهن ڀيڻ آهي ته اها پڙهڻ سان گڏوگڏ گهر جي ڪم ڪارن ۾ به ماءُ جو هٿ ونڊرايندي رهندي آهي. کاڌو پچائيندي آهي، ڪپڙا ڌوئڻ، استري ڪرڻ ۽ گهر جي صفائي انهن جي زميوارين ۾ شامل هوندو آهي. عورت جيڪڏهن زال آهي ته مڙس جي هر طرح سان خدمت ڪندي رهندي آهي. ۽ ڪرڻ به گهرجي ڇو ته اهو ان جو فرض به آهي ۽ زميواري به آهي ۽ ان کان وڌيڪ مڙس جي اها زميواري آهي ته معاشي طرح سان گهر ۾ مسئلا پئدا  ٿيئڻ نه ڏي. ڇو ته اسان جي معاشري ۾ مڙس کي ئي ترجيح ڏني ويندي آهي ته گهر جي معاشي معاملن کي اهو ئي ڏسندو. هر قسم جي معاشي ۽ مالي زميواي مڙس مٿان وڌي وئي آهي. جڏهن ته عورتون به معاشي طرح سان خاندان کي سپورٽ ڪري سگهن ٿيون. ان کان علاوه مڙس کي گهرجي ته پنهنجي زال جو وڌ کان وڌ خيال رکي، هن کي بي انتها محبت ڏي ان جي عزت ۽ احترام ڪري، ان جي هر جائز گهرجن کي پورو ڪرڻ جي ڪوشش ڪري. ڇو ته اها عورت ئي آهي جيڪا پنهنجي ماءُ ۽ پيءُ جي گهر کي ڇڏي مڙس وٽ ايندي آهي. شادي کان پوءِ مڙس ئي زال جو سڀ ڪجهه هوندو آهي.

عورت ڪائنات جي عظيم شاهڪارن مان هڪ شاهي، املهه ۽ بي ملهه تخليق آهي. ماءُ جو رشتو سڀني رشتن کان اتم، اعليٰ ۽ مٿانهين مقام تي فائز آهي. زال ۽ مڙس هڪٻئي جا لازم ۽ مظلوم جز آهن. ڀاءُ ۽ ڀيڻ جو رشتو ڪائناتي محبت جو بيمثال اڻ ٽٽ نمونو آهن. ڌيءُ قدرت جي طرفان مليل هڪ انمول نعمت ۽ رحمت هوندي آهي. جيڪڏهن عورت جي تخليق نه ٿيئي ها ته خاندان ۽ گهر جو ادارو ڪڏهن به نه هلي سگهي ها ڇو ته دنيا ۾ خاندان واري اداري کي هلائڻ ۽ ان جو بندوبست ڪرڻ تمام ڏکيو ڪم آهي. ڇو ته گهر يا خاندان جو ادارو مستقبل جي تهذيب و تمدن جو ادارو آهي. مستقبل جي اخلاقيات جي يونيورسٽي آهي. مستقبل جي معمارن جي تهذيب جو هڪ شاندار ورثو آهي. تنهنڪري عورت ئي اها ڪاريگري رکي ٿي جنهن سان خاندان جي اداري کي وڌيڪ مظبوط ڪري سگهجي ٿو.

عورت جي اهميت کي نه سمجهڻ وارن کي مهذب طريقي سان اها ئي گذارش آهي ته جڏهن توهان ڪجهه به نه هئا تڏهن توهان جي ماءُ توهان کي کير پياريو، جڏهن توهان هلي به نه سگهندا هئا ته توهان جي ماءُ توهان کي آڳرين مان جلهي هلڻ سيکاريو، جڏهن توهان روئيندا هئا ته اها توهان جي ماءُ هئي جنهن جي آغوش ۾ توهان کي سڪون مهيا ٿيندو هو. اها ماءُ ئي هئي جيڪا توهان جي ملڪمل صفائي جو خيال رکندي هئي. وڏي ڳالهه اها آهي ماءُ کي اهي سڀ ڪم ڪندي بيحد خوشي ۽ مسرت ٿيندي آهي. ٻار جي مسڪراهٽ ماءُ جي من ۽ هانءُ ۾ عجيب قسم جو اظطراب پئدا ڪري ڇڏي ٿو. ماءُ جي محبت کي ماپڻ وارو اڄ ڏينهن تائين دنيا ۾ ڪو پيمانو ئي وجود ۾ نه آيو آهي.  

عورت جي برابري کان سواءِ اسان جي معاشري ۾ سماجي توڙي اقتصادي ترقي اڻٽر آهي. جنهن ملڪ ۾ اڌ سيڪڙو عورتون هجن اهو معاشرو خوشنصيب معاشرو سڏائڻ گهرجي ڇو ته عورت بنيادي طور تي هڪ اهڙو ادارو آهي جيڪو مستقبل ۾ وڌيڪ ادارن ٺاهڻ ۾ معاون ثابت ٿيئي ٿو. اسان جي سماج ۾ ضرورت ان ڳالهه جي آهي ته عورتن کي انهن جا جائز حق ڏنا وڃن، انهن کي تعليم جهڙي زيور سان آراسته ڪيو وڃي، عورت جي عزت ۽ حرمت جو خيال رکيو وڃي، عورت جيڪا گهر ۾ تمام گهڻو ڪم ڪندي آهي ان ڪم جي مڃتا انهن کي ڏني وڃي، عورتن لاءِ معاشي طور تي بندوبست ڪيا وڃن، عورتون جيڪي ڪارخانن ۾ يا زراعت ۾ ڪم ڪنديون آهن انهن جي ڏهاڙي يا مزدوري کي مردن جي برابر ڪيو وڃي. جيڪڏهن اسانکي حقيقي سماج اڏڻو آهي ته پوءِ مرد سان گڏوگڏ عورت جي لازوال ڪردار،  قربانين ۽ ڪم کي به واکاڻڻو پوندو ۽ ٻنهي کي هڪجهڙي بنيادن تي سماجي، سياسي ۽ معاشي ترجيحات ڏيئڻيون پونديون.

   

Environmental Degradation

One of the major causes of poverty in Pakistan is environmental degradation. Because it affects and causes in the reduction of natural resources such as air, water, and soil; besides in Pakistan, there is the high destruction of ecosystems, habitat destruction, deforestation, the extinction of wildlife and pollution. Thousands of people’s sources of income are associated with ecosystems. If it is depleted where then those poor people will go?

The depletion of natural environmental resources have no doubt caused unprecedented rainfall, cyclones, flooding, earthquakes, drought and such other climatic roars that hamper the economic progress of the Pakistan. This, we also have been observing since last two to three decades.

The extreme conditions of the weather in Pakistan like the floods and heavy rains in 1992, 2003, 2007, 2010, 2011, 2013 and 2015. Besides cyclone in 1999, the earthquake in 2005, and an ongoing drought-like situation in the desert of the Thar have significantly affected not only the socio-economic situation but also have damaged infrastructure at enormous scale.

The effects of environmental degradation on the economy are irreversible and it is the less touched challenge in Pakistan. The government does not take environmental degradation as a critical issue.

We are an agrarian developing country where about 24pc GDP depends on the agriculture sector. But unfortunately, due to environmental degradation, our economy is encountering huge losses in the sector.

We already are running short of forested areas and the other hand there is the destruction of remaining forested areas, wetlands are being polluted due to disposing of waste water in it, grasslands and pastures have been reduced and agricultural lands are being decayed due to increasing water-logging. Moreover, owing to the environmental dilapidation, several species of birds and plants have become rare. The fish stock in the wetlands has been depleted – the communities who used to depend on fishing are migrated to the semi-urban settlements.

Due to the severe consequences of environmental degradation, we are facing the problems of land degradation, erosion, and super-flooding this destruction ultimately affects the overall national economy and mostly poor and marginalized communities are affected.

There is no role of forestation in GDP of Pakistan; even forestation in Pakistan is on alarmingly declining. Besides, our environmental degradation is ultimately affecting our overall economic spectrum.

According to the findings of Word Bank in partnership with National Disaster Management Authority, the Ministry of Finance, the securities and exchange commission of Pakistan, the provincial disaster management authorities and the provincial finance departments in 2015 stated that Pakistan causes 3 to 4pc economic loss on the federal budget due to flooding and heavy rains.

The report further analyzes that the annual economic impact of flooding is estimated between US $ 1.2 billion and US $ 1.8 billion, equivalent to between 0.5pc and 0.8pc of national GDP; however simulations show that a major flood event (occurring, on average, once every 100 years) could cause losses in excess of US $ 15.5 billion, which equates to around 7pc of national GDP, equivalent to almost 40pc of the Federal Budget.

According to the Global Climate Risk Index (2017) by Germanwatch indicates that Pakistan is at the high global climate risk it is at number 7th. The risks globally have been analyzed between 1996 up to 2015. Furthermore, the report says that Pakistan has faced 133 natural disaster events, where there is 0.647pc loss in GDP and the total loss in million is US$ 3823.17.

This is a very alarming issue in Pakistan and in future can cause lots of humans as well as economic loss. Awareness at the very grassroots level should be initiated. The government should make such a mechanism which could help people understand the importance of environmental degradation. The forestation movements need to be initiated. The students in universities, colleges and schools should be sensitized about increasing environmental degradation and they should be motivated to plan trees.