Earth Temperature and Climate Change

Earth’s temperature depends on the balance between energy entering and leaving the planet’s system. When incoming energy from the sun is absorbed by the Earth system, Earth warms. When the sun’s energy is reflected back into space, Earth avoids warming. When absorbed energy is released back into space, Earth cools. Many factors, both natural and human, can cause changes in Earth’s energy balance, including:

These factors have caused Earth’s climate to change many times.

Scientists have pieced together a record of Earth’s climate, dating back hundreds of thousands of years (and, in some cases, millions or hundreds of millions of years), by analyzing a number of indirect measures of climate such as ice cores, tree rings, glacier lengths, pollen remains, and ocean sediments, and by studying changes in Earth’s orbit around the sun.

This record shows that the climate system varies naturally over a wide range of time scales. In general, climate changes prior to the Industrial Revolution in the 1700s can be explained by natural causes, such as changes in solar energy, volcanic eruptions, and natural changes in greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations.

Recent climate changes, however, cannot be explained by natural causes alone. Research indicates that natural causes do not explain most observed warming, especially warming since the mid-20thcentury. Rather, it is extremely likely that human activities have been the dominant cause of that warming.

Human activities contribute to climate change by causing changes in Earth’s atmosphere in the amounts of greenhouse gasses, aerosols (small particles), and cloudiness. The largest known contribution comes from the burning of fossil fuels, which releases carbon dioxide gas into the atmosphere.

Greenhouse gasses and aerosols affect climate by altering incoming solar radiation and outgoing infrared (thermal) radiation that are part of Earth’s energy balance. Changing the atmospheric abundance or properties of these gasses and particles can lead to a warming or cooling of the climate system.

Since the start of the industrial era (about 1750), the overall effect of human activities on climate has been a warming influence. The human impact on climate during this era greatly exceeds that due to known changes in natural processes, such as solar changes and volcanic eruptions.so we need to have control on our activities to save our future.

 

CLIMATE CHANGE AND MONSOON

Monsoon rainfall is the life-blood of more than half the world’s population, for whom agriculture is the main source of subsistence. Traditionally, the terminology “monsoon” was used for the climate that has an apparent seasonal shift of prevailing winds between winter and summer, notably in tropical Asia, Australia, Africa, and the Indian Ocean. The term also increasingly refers to regions where there is a clear alternation between winter dry and summer rainy seasons. According to this definition, the monsoon region is distributed globally over all tropical continents, and in the tropical oceans in the western North Pacific, eastern North Pacific, and the southern Indian Ocean.
The important influences, which need to be considered for monsoon prediction on yearly time scales, include the Indian Ocean Dipole – a coupled ocean and atmospheric phenomenon over the Indian Ocean, and Atlantic Ocean sea surface temperatures. On longer time scales, monsoon variability may be influenced by large-scale variability in the atmosphere and oceans, such the Pacific Decadal Oscillation which affects sea-surface temperature and circulation over much of the Northern Hemisphere Pacific Ocean.
When Monsoon hits Pakistan a large outbreak of diseases are reported in different parts of the country. It’s one of those problems that occur due to lack of preventive measures and lapses in our pre-planned structure. Monsoon usually spans in Pakistan from start of June until the end of August and throughout the months we hear about causalities and illnesses caused by rain and its after effects such as damming of water on roads, deaths due to electric shock, dengue outbreak, malaria, measles etc. Monsoons typically occur in India and Southeast Asia.

A summer monsoon blows from the southwest between May and September and brings rain. Hurricanes, severe thunderstorms, large hail and tornadoes can accompany the arrival of the summer monsoon. A late arrival of the summer monsoon is bad for agriculture, as the rainfall is necessary for crops. A dry monsoon blows from the northeast between October and April. During this time, dry storms suck the moisture away from the land out to sea and cause drought. The intensity of storms produced varies from year to year, and there is no way to predict their severity before they occur. In the late summer, a weaker, more-localized monsoon occurs over the Southwest United States when thunderstorms and humidity spread over the region (Raju et al.,2005).

About 80% of annual rainfall in India occurs during the monsoon season from June through September. Factors that could perturb rainfall regularity include the higher holding capacity of moisture of the warmer air, but also more complex phenomena like cooling in the higher atmosphere which changes current pressure and thereby rainfall patterns. Extreme rainfall bears the risk of flooding and crop failure, it said. The study says increased variability translates into potentially severe impacts on people who cannot afford additional loss, said lead author Anders Levermann. “Focusing on the average is not always useful. If rainfall comes in a spell and is followed by a drought, this can be devastating even if the average is normal. This requires the right kind of adaptation measures that account for this variability  such as intelligent insurance schemes, for example,” he said. “Limiting global warming is key, adaptation cannot replace but rather complement it.”

Climate Change and Farmer’s Market

Did you know that the food that you eat travels an average of more than 1,500 miles to reach your plate? When you buy local food or products that were manufactured in your country or even more locally, you are helping your nation’s economy. You also are supporting farmers directly. Most importantly, you are also reducing how much pollution you are causing indirectly through consumption. Local consumption can really help reduce your greenhouse gas emissions and your impact.

Shopping locally and getting involved in your local community has certainly been in the spotlight in recent years as environmental issues have come to the fore. The connection between going local and going green is easy to see by connecting with the things nearby to us, we’re supporting our local environment rather than looking further afield for our needs. This means less CO2 emissions, a greener local area and a better approach to tackling the onset of climate change.

This is perhaps why farmers’ markets have grown in popularity in recent years, in towns, villages, and cities across the country especially in US, springing up even in the most unlikely of places. We need farmer market in Pakistan as farmers’ markets epitomize the ‘think local’ ideal, bringing locally grown and sourced produce to consumers, ensuring low food miles and less CO2 emissions.

The Growth Of Farmers’ Markets

Farmers and local producers bring food and other items directly to the consumer, cutting out the middleman. All items sold need to have been produced, grown or caught by the seller, and within a localized radius, which means you can be assured of its local origins. The great thing about farmers’ markets is that you can ask the seller about the product and be sure of an honest and accurate answer about what’s in it, or where it comes from.

Farmers’ Markets Are Good For The Local Economy

Farmers’ markets, by bringing local items to the local community, helps keep money circulating in the local area, which is good for other businesses and operations in the area. By making farmers’ markets a regular occurrence, the surrounding amenities flourish too, including local shops and other facilities.

Farmers’ Markets Are Good For Consumers

Not only are farmers’ markets convenient and easy to get to they’re local, so cut out the need for consumers to use a car to travel there they are also good value for money for customers. Because farmers’ and local producers are able to cut out the middleman (shops and supermarkets and other suppliers) they are able to give you a better deal and still make a healthy profit themselves. Plus, there’s always the opportunity for some bartering over the market stalls to help you secure a bargain!

Farmers’ Markets Help Lower Food Miles

Food miles are the total number of miles a product or ingredient has had to travel before it ends up in your shopping bag. The more miles it has to travel, the less fresh it will be, and the more CO2 its journey to you will have warranted. Because farmers’ markets work on the premise of local foods, you’ll be buying into as low a food mile quota as possible, and also guaranteeing fresher food on your plate.

Climate Change Becomes More Complex

The herder who loses one or two cows to famine amid a drought may feel he has little choice but to sell other livestock at very low prices the only prices he can get to keep his family fed. The family may survive the crisis, but they will have lost productive economic assets they relied on, assets that had paid for the children to attend school and were helping the family move out of poverty. The children lose the advantage of an education, the herder has lost an economic base to build from, and he becomes less likely to take risks that could increase his income. Escaping the poverty trap becomes more difficult, and the effects can extend for generations.

Governments can help poor families get through climate shocks with more of their assets intact and build resilience to longer term climate changes while also working to reduce the drivers of climate change.

Experts in poverty and climate change at the World Bank Group are working with researchers around the world this year to help develop policy guidance and recommendations that can help.To end poverty requires action on both poverty and climate change quickly.

“Climate change represents a direct and immediate threat to poverty alleviation. It’s important that we bring the climate and poverty communities together to design interventions that are effective for both,” said Marianne Fay, the World Bank Group’s chief economist for climate change.

Four clear issues are opening those conversations:

1) Climate change is an obstacle to ending extreme poverty.

The poor – both those living in poverty and those just barely above the poverty line – are already the most at risk from climate change. They have the fewest resources to adapt or recover quickly from shocks, and they often live on the most vulnerable land because it tends to be the most affordable, such as homes along creeks that flood or on hillsides prone to landslides, or farmland with limited water access.

The damage extreme weather can do their homes and businesses can prevent the poor from escaping poverty, and it is often the trigger that tips the vulnerable into poverty.

2) Climate policies benefit the poor over the long-term and can benefit the poor in the short-term when accompanied by appropriate social policies.

Climate policies designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions can increase the cost of energy, but they can also generate or free up public finances to help the poor in more targeted ways.

Several Countries are now working on subsidy reform. When Indonesia began phasing out fossil fuel subsidies and raised gas prices by 44 percent, it also introduced programs to mitigate the effect of higher energy prices through subsidized rice, free health care, cash assistance to poor students and a one-year conditional cash transfer targeting poor households with pregnant women or school-age children.

3) Creating strong, flexible social safety nets can catch the poor before they fall into poverty.

One clear message from the research across climate change and poverty is that reducing the impact of climate change on poverty requires strengthening the social protection system to make programs scalable and targeted to those in need.

An effective social protection system is one flexible enough to be scaled up quickly in times of crisis.

Beyond emergency support, effective social protection systems help increase access to basic services for the poor, to health care, and to financial services such as loans to help rebuild or build businesses.

4) We have a window of opportunity to reduce poverty now.

As the impacts of climate change worsen, it will become harder to eliminate poverty. That leaves a narrow window for ending extreme poverty and putting in place the safety nets that can keep poverty at bay while countries also work to lower their emissions toward net zero. The work underway right now, with a goal of ending extreme poverty by 2030, can help governments lead the way on combating climate change while also working to improve the lives and futures of the least well-off in their countries.