Hepatitis C, Its Causes & preventions

Hepatitis C is a liver infection caused by virus (HCV). Hepatitis C is a blood-borne virus. Today, most people become infected with the Hepatitis C virus by sharing needles or other equipment to inject drugs. For some people, hepatitis C is a short-term illness but for 70%–85% of people who become infected with Hepatitis C, it becomes a long-term, chronic infection. Chronic Hepatitis C is a serious disease than can result in long-term health problems, even death. The majority of infected persons might not be aware of their infection because they are not clinically ill. There is no vaccine for Hepatitis C. The best way to prevent Hepatitis C is by avoiding behaviors that can spread the disease, especially injecting drugs.

Symptoms and signs are

a)      Elevated liver enzymes in the blood

b)      Weakness

c)      Loss of appetite

d)      Weight loss

e)      Breast enlargement in men (gynecomastia)

f)       Redness of the palms

g)      Difficulty with the clotting of blood

h)      Spider-like blood vessels on the skin

i)        Abdominal pain

j)        Clay colored stools

k)      Bleeding from the esophagus

l)        Fluid in the abdomen

m)   Yellow skin and eyes (jaundice)

n)      Confusion

o)      Coma

Hepatitis C is not transmitted by breast-milk. However, a child may be inheritably affected by mother at the time of birth.

A very small number of cases of hepatitis C are transmitted through sexual intercourse. Poor infection control practices during tattooing and body piercing potentially can lead to spread of infection. There have been some outbreaks of hepatitis C when instruments exposed to blood have been re-used without adequate cleaning and sterilization between patients.Hepatitis C can be transmitted from an organ donor to an organ recipient. Donors of organs are tested for hepatitis C.

Hepatitis C is one of several viruses that cause hepatitis (inflammation of the liver).About 0.3% people are estimated to be currently infected with hepatitis C in the Multan district.

Several tests for diagnose are available to measure the amount of hepatitis C virus in a person’s blood (the viral load). The hepatitis C virus’s RNA can be identified by a type of test called polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that detects circulating virus in the blood as early as 2-3 weeks after infection, so it can be used to detect suspected acute infection with hepatitis C early infection.

Hepatitis C infection can cause the body to produce abnormal antibodies called cry globulins. Cry globulins cause inflammation of arteries (vasculitis). This may damage skin, joints, and kidneys. Patients with cryglobulinemia (cry globulins in the blood) may have

a)      joint pain,

b)      arthritis,

c)      a raised purple rash on the legs, and

d)      Generalized pain or swelling of their bodies.

Primary ways to control

  • Not sharing household items
  • Do not inject drugs
  • Eat a diet low in saturated and no trans-fat.
  • Drink 8 to 12 eight ounces of water daily,
  • Reduce sugar and high sodium foods.
  • Exercising regularly
  • Avoid fried foods.
  • Eat lots of fresh vegetables and fruits, choose organic if possible.
  • adhering to medication
  • taking an active role in medical care
  • Not using alcohol

One way flow- Mcdonaldization, The cultural Diversity

Being a 90’s child I have risen up in a society where the great transformation happened in all ways. I remember the time when we had one PTCL phone that was used by our four to five families at a time and also was pride to share it with neighbors while they need it. I have seen those times when schools had very limited subjects to teach and universities were a dream to get in. In my childhood I never thought of the phenomena that why and how things get faster and better, it was fantasy to see personal computers turning into laptop and those laptops into wrist watch computers which is a good thing anyways.

Few things about world system remind me questioned that how the mini burger stalls are overlap by KFC , Mcdonald, burger king etc, and how we convinced ourselves to eat those international brands ? Remember when first time you entered in McDonalds? How was your feel to be there? Honestly may be you found yourself unfit to the environment but visiting that place repeatedly you got familiar to the way McDonald required. The English song, the cozy surrounding the unique perfume and tempting food changed our mind sets from the past 15 years like never before.

All this is not because of mild chicken burgers but importantly due to the mcDonaldization which is a one way flow from the American and European societies. McDonaldization alone is worthless until it is not attach with globalization or we could say mcdoladiztion is a part of globalization. Many around the world are at benefit with the emergence of both together but many on other hand remain still deprived due to decline of local values. According to the world system theory the core and semi periphery countries have used globalization to make periphery countries grow up and at the same time not to grow up with local brands and remain intact with international brands to meet international standards of living which is again not a bad idea but what about the economic growth of third world countries which have stuck into providing raw material to the first world nations as a tradition to earn money.

The one way flow doesn’t mean only food but it is about so many other things includes culture, traditions, life style, education, harmony, art, language etc. Since rapid globalization around the world has created space for nations to bring their culture in other nations and break this one way flow, as we see migration of hundred and thousands of people for various purposes to live in other countries that has mix up all the colors.

A recent example is a decorated and designed truck of Pakistani culture in America that is attracted by most of the Americans these days. The impacts of mcDonaldization are hard to evaluate in this modernization era where every social setup has mixed up with other and created examples of “Uniqueness in diversity”.

Merit of this rapid process has saved a lot of time and that was earlier spent to complete a task but what about rest of the time that is spent on social apps, merits of mcdonaldization says that one burger is equal to one meal that was earlier served with chapatti, curry and full salads as a requirement to full the belly, it absolutely time saving alternate but what about the production market of wheat and maize which has declined due to high consumption of burger food. Merits are attach with demerits and could not evaluate in isolation. Fast music in a fast food restaurant has fasten the minds but this only prevails in few classes of society e:g upper class,upper middle class and middle class rest of all are rest in peace or trying to access the fast food restaurants with average credits in hand.

Globalization is a global process that has produced harmonies among life styles of all the nations around, yet many languages, cultures, social identities, ethnicities are burnt into burry and have no place on planet. We should accept the diversity and one way flow but should keep our nationalities in flow as well so that globalization can bought well for all.

موسمیاتی تبدیلی اور کپاس کی بیماریاں

جیسا کہ ہم سب جانتے ہیں پاکستان ایک زرعی ملک ہے، اور کپاس یہاں کی ایک بہت ہی مشہور فصل ہے جو کہ ملکی استعمال کے علاوہ دیگر ممالک میں بھی درآمد کی جاتی ہے۔ گذشتہ کئی سالوں سے موسم میں غیر معمولی تبدیلیوں کے سبب اس فصل کو مشکلات کا سامنا ہے۔ موسم کی شدت کے باعث بیماریوں کی شرح میں اضافہ ہو جاتا، نئی قسم کی بیماریاں وقوع پذیر ہوجاتی ہیں، یا پھر فصل پر بیماریوں کا حملہ اس قدر بڑھ جاتا ہے کہ کسی بھی قسم کی سپرے سے اس کو روکا نہیں جا سکتا اور نتیجہ فصل کی تباہی ، کسان کی بربادی اور ملکی پیداوار میں کمی کی صورت میں نکلتا ہے۔ موسمی تغیر کے سبب پیدا ہونے والی بیماریاں اورفصل پر ان کے اثرات درج ذیل ہیں
سفید مکھی۔
سفید مکھی شدید گرمی اور حبس کی پیداوار ہے ، یہ پودے کے پتوں پر حملہ آور ہوتی ہے جس سے پتوں کا رنگ تبدیل ہو جاتا ہے اور پودا کمزور ہونا شروع ہو جا تا ہے ۔ ابتدائی حملہ کی صورت میں اگر وقت پر بارش ہو جائے تو ٹمپریچر میں کمی کے باعث اس کا خاتمہ ہو جاتا ہے، بصورت دیگر گرم ہوائیں چلنے سے بھی یہ بیماری ختم ہو جاتی ہے۔ مگ گذشتہ سالوں کے تناظر میں بارشوں کا وقت پر نہ ہونا ریکارڈ کیا گیا ہے جس سے فصل پر سفید مکھی کا حملہ جولائی سے ستمبرمیں شدید ہو جاتا ہے اور پھر مختلف کمپنیوں کے سپرے سے بھی بامشکل قابو کیا جاتا ہے۔ سپرے سے فصل کے اوسط خرچ میں اضافہ ہو تا ہے جو کہ چھوٹے کسان کے بس کی بات نہیں۔
تھرپس بھی شدید گرمی کے سبب فصل پر اثر انداز ہوتی ہے۔ یہ پودے کے پتوں میں خوراک کی رگوں پر حملہ آور ہوتی ہے اور اس میں اپنا زہر داخل کر دیتی ہے۔ یہ پودی کے نچلے پتوں پر انڈے دیتی ہے جن کی تعداد ہزاروں میں ہوتی ہے۔ اگر معتدل آب و ہوانہ ملے یاوقت پر سپرے نہ کی جائے تو فصل کو تباہ کر دیتی ہے ۔
مائٹس اور تھرپس ایک ہی طرح کی بیماریاں ہیں ، فرق صرف اتنا ہے کہ مائٹس چند پودوں پر اثر انداز ہوتی ہے جبکہ ترپس پوری فصل پر
لشکری سنڈی
لشکری سنڈی کہ لشکر سے تشبیح اس لئے دی گئی ہے کہ یہ لشکر (بڑی تعداد)کی صورت میں حملہ آور ہوتی ہے، ابتداء میں یہ چند پودوں پر نظر آتی ہے لیکن اگر زرا بھی لا پروائی کی جائے تو یہ ایک ہفتہ کے اندر اندر فصل کا صفایا کر دیتی ہے۔ اس کا حملے کا طریقہ کار یہ ہے کہ یہ پتوں کو کھاتی ہے اور ان میں بڑے بڑے سوراخ کر دیتی ہے۔
گلابی اور چتکبری سنڈی
اگست کے آخر میں ٹنڈا پک کر تیار ہو جاتا ہے تو گلابی سنڈی اپنا کام دکھاتی ہے اور ٹنڈے کا اندر گھس کر اسے کھوکھلا کر دیتی ہے یہاں تک کہ ٹنڈا کھلنے سے پہلے ہے تباہ ہو جاتا ہے۔
وائرس کا حملہ پتوں پر ہوتا ہے ۔ پتے مڑنا شروع ہو جاتے ہیں اور پودا کمزور ہونے لگتا ہے جس سے نئی کونپلیں نہیں نکل پاتی اور پودے کے بڑھنے کا عمل رک جاتا ہے۔ نتیجہ پودے چھوٹے رہے جاتے ہیں اور ٹنڈوں کی مقدار بھی کم ہوتی ہے جس سے اوسط پیداوار میں کمی واقع ہوتی ہے۔

اوپر بتائی گئی تمام بیماریوں کے پیش نظر ضرورت اس امر کی ہے کہ کسانوں کو اگیتی اور پچھیتی کاشت کی بجائے موسمی تبدیلیوں کے کیلنڈر کے متعلق بتایا جائے۔ تعلیمی اداروں کو موسمی تغیرات پر ریسرچز کرنی چاہیے اور ان کی روشنی میں کسانوں کوجامع لائحہ عمل تیار کر کے دینا چاہیے۔ مختلف کمپنیوں کو اپنی ادویات اور بیج کی ورائٹی میں بہتری لانی چاہیے تا کہ موسمی تبدیلیوں اور اس میں پیدا ہونے والی بیماریوں سے موئثر طریقہ سے مقابلہ کر سکیں۔ حکومتی سطح پر جس طرح گندم کی خرید کے لئے مراکز قائم کیے جاتے ہیں اسی طرح کپاس کی کاشت کے وقت معیاری بیج کی فراہمی اور چنائی کے وقت خرید کے مراکز قائم کیے جائیں تا کہ کسان کا استحصال نہ ہو اور کپاس کی فصل ملکی پیداوار میں اپنی اہمیت بھی برقرار رکھ سکے۔

Plastic Pollution


Beaches in Pakistan, especially Clifton, are littered with plastic pollution contributing to around 50 percent of the total garbage found on the beach. This non degradable pollutant is seriously affecting marine life along coastal and offshore waters, maintained a World Wide Fund for Nature Pakistan’s  study on marine pollution in the country.

According to WWF Pakistan solid garbage from cities and towns along the coastline makes its way to the ocean. An estimated 14 billion pounds of trash, much of it plastic is dumped in the world’s oceans every year.Plastic bags, bottles, toys, packaging material, if not disposed of correctly, can reach the sea.Plastic waste, which decomposes very slowly, therefore, remain either floating in the open sea or piled up on the beaches Fishermen also contribute in this pollution by dumping an estimated 150,000 tons of plastic into the ocean each year, including packaging, plastic nets, lines, and buoys. According to another estimate about 8,000 tons of solid waste mainly consisting of plastic is unaccounted for in Karachi; most of it ending up in the sea around Karachi. 

It has been reported that globally one out of three marine mammals have been found entangled in plastic litter. Similarly, researches indicate that around 90 percent of sea birds digest plastic.

Fish and other animals are also not spared as they consume micro-plastic or become entangled in plastic debris, the study maintains.

Uncontrolled dumping of plastic products in the terrestrial and marine environment has become a serious threat to animals and plants inhabiting coastal and offshore waters of Pakistan.

According to one estimate, around 6.4 million metric tons of trash, mostly plastic, is dumped in the world’s oceans every year. If plastic bags, bottles, toys and packaging material are not disposed of properly, they reach the sea and damage coastal ecosystems.

Plastic pollution come from flotsam and jetsam generated from ships including fishing vessels operating in the sea. Floating plastic is mistaken for food items my marine animals who become engulfed in it, in most cases, with serious and deadly consequences.

There is need to place stress upon the need for controlling dumping of solid waste especially plastic in the sea, as most of these materials degrade very slowly taking in most cases centuries. There is, therefore, need to control disposal of solid waste which may be taken to the community dump site by the municipal organization. ‘There is also a need to undertake regular cleaning operations of the beaches to remove accumulated plastic.