Role of Industrial Sector in Promoting Environmental Sustainability Cleaner Technology Perspective

In climate change dialogue, private enterprises and industries in particular have long been criticized for sacrificing the environment in pursuit of profit. They consume scarce natural resources and chug out smoke, liquid effluents and hazardous solid wastes that damage the environment. In many developed countries, strict environmental regulations and de-industrialization has greatly reduced the visible symptoms of environmental degradation. However in the developing world, the uncontrolled industrialization and lack of environment friendly practices are causing severe air, water and land pollution. The resulting environmental damage is often blamed on the inherent greed of private sector.

The advocates of private enterprise reject this blame. They point out that there is no evidence that industries are less polluting when they are publicly owned. Given the right incentive, private sector enterprises can be encouraged to research and adopt environment friendly technologies and practices. They further point out that majority of private sector enterprises are already trying to change their image from environmental villains by adopting environment friendly practices. Moreover, many private sector enterprises are actually making profit by assisting other enterprises in adopting environmental friendly practices.

Both of the perspectives noted above have some truth. However, we won’t get into the debate of whether private sector is actually a villain or a partner in environmental protection rather we will focus on mainstream debate on how private sector enterprises can ensure environment protection.

From a cleaner technology perspective, production efficiency and pollution control are two steps through which sustainable industrial production can be achieved.  From this perspective, private sector needs to adopt a holistic approach that takes into account the environmental risks associated with each phase in the production process and curtail environmental pollution through adoption of end of pipe measures. Occurring at the end of production process, End of Pipe measures refer to methods to remove already formed contaminants form air, water, soil, waste, product, etc. Once measures have been taken to reduce the hazardous pollutants, next step is to improve production efficiency. Higher energy and material efficiency not only improves the production levels but also keeps down the environmental burdens.

However, it should be kept in mind that this is not the perfect solution. End of pipe measures only provide a short term solution by reducing exposure levels of local residents. These measures often change the form of the pollution rather than eliminating it. For example, tall stacks only displace air pollution over greater areas rather than eliminating it. This approach can be contrasted with preventing contamination from occurring in the first place. We need strategies that solve the problem before they get into the pipe. We need both the source control (keeping pollutants out of the environment) and treatment (removing pollutants from air, water, etc). We need to find new ways of making industrial production environmentally sustainable without compromising the economic gains. For this purpose, we need a combination of government regulations, public – private partnership, research in environment friendly practices and pressure from civil society.

 

ڇا الو، ولو ۽ گُلو هڪڀيرو ٻيهر هڪجهڙا ٿي ويندا

الو، ولو ۽ گلو ٽيئي هڪ ئي ڳوٺ ۾، هڪ جهڙي ئي حالت ۾ ۽ هڪجهڙن ئي جذبن ۽ احساسن سان پيدا ٿيا. توڙي جو الو، هاري جي گهر ۾، ولو ڪمدار جي گهر ۾ ۽ گُلو وڏيري جي گهر ۾ اک کولي هئي پر هن دنيا ۾ پهريون ڀيرو اک کولڻ وقت انهن ۾ ڪو به فرق نه هو. پر پوءِ جيئن جيئن وقت گذرندو ويو تئين تيئن اهي هڪٻئي کان هيٺ مٿي ٿيندا ويا. هلندي هلندي هيل تائين نالن کان ويندي سندن حالن تائين ۾ وڏو فرق اچي ويو آهي. ننڍي هوندي ڳوٺ جي گهِٽين ۾ مٽي جي ڍير تي جڏهن اهي گڏجي کيڏندا هئا تڏهن ويجهي کان به ڪنهن کي ڪا خبر نه پوندي هئي ته انهن مان الو ڪهڙو آهي ته ولو ڪهڙو يا  وري ولو ڪهڙو ته گلو ڪهڙو، پر هاڻي پري کان ئي کين هرڪو ئي سڃاڻي پيو سگهي.

الو هاري جي گهر ۾ پئدا ٿيو هو سو هاري ئي رهيو، ولو ڪمدار جي گهر ۾ ڄائو سو هُو ٻيو نه ته به پرائمري ماستر ٿي ويو ۽ گلو، جيئن ته ڳوٺ جي وڏيري جي گهر ۾ اک کولي هئي ۽ اهو پڙهي لکي آفيسر به ٿي ويو هو سو اهو هاڻي وڏيرو گل محمد خان صاحب ٿي ويو هو. انهن ۾ اهڙا ويڇا وڌائڻ ۾ نه رڳو رعايا پر رياست جو به وڏو ڪردار آهي. رعايا ته وتائي کان وٺي  اڇن ڪپڙن کي ئي عزت ڏيندي رهي آهي پر اها رياست ئي آهي جيڪا اڇي ڪاري جي مالڪ هجڻ جو ناجائز فائدو وٺندي هڪڙن کي ڇنڊ ڦوڪ جي لاءِ اڇا ڪپڙا ٿي پارائي ته ٻين کي اوگهڙ ڍڪڻ لاءِ گندي ۽ گوڏ به نٿي ڏئي. ٻين معاملن ۾ ته قانون جو منهن اڇو آهي پر ڪي انياءَ اهڙا به آهن جن ۾ خود قانون جا هٿ به ڪارا آهن. جيئن مثال جي طور تي سرڪاري ملازمن جي سيلري سلپ ئي کڻي ڏسجي ته اکين آڏو اوندهه اچي ٿي وڃي. الو وٽ ته نه نوڪري آهي نه ئي سيلري سلپ، پر ولي محمد جي سيلري سلپ ۾ ميڊيڪل الائونس، ڪنوينس الائونس توڙي هائوس رينٽ سوَن ۾ لکيا پيا آهن ته ٻئي پاسي وڏيري گل محمد خان صاحب جي سيلري سلپ ۾ اهي ساڳيون ئي سهولتون هزارن ۾ لکيون پيون آهن.

اها ڳالهه ته هرڪوئي سمجهي ٿو ته ڪو هاري مزدور هجي يا ڪو کڻي ماستر يا آفيسر، پر الله سائين ساهه ته سڀني کي ساڳيو ئي ڏنو آهي سو انساني بنيادي ضرورتون ته ساڳيون ئي هونديون آهن پر انڌير نگري اها آهي جو هي سيلري سلپ ظاهر ڪري ٿي ته گهٽ اسڪيل وارو ملازم جهوپي ۾ رهي، کٽارا گاڏين ۾ سفر ڪري ۽ بيمار ٿئي ته عطائي ڊاڪٽرن کان علاج ڪرائي، جڏهن ته ان جي ڀيٽ ۾ وڏي اسڪيل وارو ملازم هڪ شاندار گهر ۾ رهي، وڏين گاڏين ۾ گهمي ڦري ۽ بيمار ٿئي ته ڪنهن هوائي توائي بدران اسپيشلسٽ کان علاج ڪرائي! اصولي طور تي هجڻ ته هينئن گهرجي ته اسڪيل جي بنياد تي بنيادي پگهار ۾ ڀلي کڻي زمين آسمان جو فرق هجڻ گهرجي پر بنيادي ضرورتن جي حوالي سان ته سڀئي برابر هجڻ گهرجن. ائين ڪرڻ سان به الو، ولو ۽ گلو هڪ ڀيرو ٻيهر اهڙا هڪجهڙا ته ڪونه ٿي سگهندا جهڙا ننڍي هوندي هوندا هئا، پر ايترو ضرور ٿيندو جو قانوني طور تي سندن بنيادي ضرورتن کي گهٽ ۾ گهٽ برابري جو درجو ته ملي ويندو

Business and Human Rights Remedies

Many business activities have an impact on human rights; whether these impacts are positive or negative depends upon the approaches taken by the state and the business community. A business might hire workers through a company that subjects them to forced labor and harassment.

According to international standards on business and human rights, state authorities and business enterprises must respect, protect and fulfill all human and labor rights. These standards are articulated in a number of different international treaties, guidelines, and frameworks. For instance, the European Union has granted General Scheme of Preference Plus (GSP+) status to Pakistan; under the status, Pakistan should implement 15 human and labor rights conventions. The UNGPs reinforce key standards articulated in these 15 conventions.

The UN High Commissioner for Human Rights said that “The United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights provide a roadmap of the actions that both states and companies must take to prevent business-related human rights abuse, and to provide effective remedy and justice.”

The key obligations under UNGP – The duty of the state to protect human rights abuses, including those committed by third parties, also the corporate responsibility to respect human rights in business activities (i.e. to ensure that they do not interfere with the human rights of others) and address any negative impacts of their business activities on human rights. Moreover, the responsibility of the states and businesses to, respectively, ensure victims of abuse have access to effective remedy and grievance mechanism.

Provide access to judicial and non-judicial grievance mechanism to victims of human rights abuses involving businesses. The government may create policies and processes that commit them to respect human rights. These policies and processes should include human rights due diligence process to identify, prevent, mitigate and account for how the businesses address their human rights impacts as well as processes to remedy adverse human rights impacts due to their activities.

Provide or cooperate in grievance mechanisms that seek to remedy adverse human rights impacts linked to their activities. Remedies may be provided through state-based processes, such as the courts, or non-state-based processes, including industry, multi-stakeholder and/or other collaborative initiatives.

Women In Pakistan

As Pakistan is a growing and developing country and for the past few years its condition is not much improving, this in act is further affecting the condition of women. As more and more people are affected thus poverty is increasing.

When the world has come into existence, from the time of the end, the woman achieves perfection. How much more than this woman, who kept the holy paradise under the feet, in the form of a woman, her degrees are high. “Being a mother, it is a paradise, a woman being a wife is able to have a spirit, as sister it is a pray, and a Daughter it is a kind of Blessing.” We are well aware of the greatness of the woman. Pakistani women, especially rural women, play a vital role in agriculture and contribute in all operations linked to crop production and livestock management at field level. The majority of the women living in the rural areas are involved in poultry farming, cattle farming, and handicrafts.

Women are also responsible for performing household activities, looking after their family members, preparing food for them three times a day and fetching drinking water and fuel for cooking. But Now Many NGOs also doing work for girl’s education they convince parents, give awareness to them and giving them free schooling. In Pakistan, apparently through the perspective of Islam this country says it gives equal right to both men and women but there is another side to the picture. Women constitute a small portion in decision making and they contribute very less o the development of the country as there labor force participation with respect to men is very less. The status of women in this country represents the traditions and the social customs, which led women to this condition.

Women are always underprivileged then man in Pakistan, they get less education, food, decision making and health. As it considered, men are the lords of women, and women are deprived from their basic rights. Women destiny is controlled by men. This is not the case in Pakistan only but also in many countries men are considered superior than women. To achieve development, we have to convert our weakness to strengths. The living conditions of women, their poverty and huge family household prevent them from gaining education. Since the beginning girls are required to work with their mothers to look after the whole family and do household chores this, therefore limits their time and energy to get involved in education. Issue of illiteracy is the main priority for women. As only educated women can access to economic and political sphere.

A lot of work must be done to finish inequality and discrimination based on gender especially in schools .hard work must be done to enroll all children in to school, especially girls. And to make sure that they complete their studies up till tertiary level as this can lead to good productive jobs and high economic growth for the whole country.

Economic participation refers to contribution of females to workforce in quantitative terms. Economic opportunity is related to how much women are involved in the economy, beyond their mere presence as workers. This problem is concentrated in developed countries where women gain access to employment easily but they have little chances of upward mobility.

Since beginning women face a lot of constraint and these restraints replicate women’s difficulty in education; lack of power and confidence and negotiating authority; as from their household they are misjudge which effects in low self-respect plus with comparatively high participation in part-time or transitory professions; leads to less employment for women and discrimination against them. Despite women’s increased participation in the labor market, there has been no significant increase in the sharing of unpaid work, which affects women’s employment choices.

In Pakistan, especially in rural areas Violence against women is very common. And they are not encouraged to report their cases to police. If anyone of them does that, instead of giving them their proper right, they are subjugated to humility. The dowry has been maintained and thousands of females are killed every year by their husbands because the dowry is too little. And as the majority of the cases are not registered so more than half of the scenarios do not come to the surface. Moreover, male children are given more rights than female. As the girl is considered a burden for the whole family, especially when children are ill, the parents favor to pay treatment for sons than for daughters, resultantly more girls die.Women are not free to move in the villages and suffer severe restriction on their movement.

The role of women outside the home has become an important feature of the social and economic life of the country and in the years to come, this will become still more significant. From this point of view, greater attention will have to be paid to the problems of training and development of women. The education of girls, therefore, should be emphasized not only on grounds of social justice but also because it accelerates social transformation. Promoting women education is a challenging task and it required multipronged efforts for a solution.