ہربل پیسٹی سائیڈ کا استعمال اور فصلو ں کا کیڑوں سے بچاؤ

آج کل کیمیائی زہروں کا استعمال بہت زیادہ بڑھ چکا ہے پاکستان میں سب سے زیادہ کیڑوں کو مارنے والے زہروں کا استعمال کیا جاتا ہے ۔ ہمارے کسان بھائی مختلف پیسٹی سائیڈ کمپنیوں کے ڈیلروں کے جھانسے میں آکر بہت زیادہ کیمیائی زہروں کا سپرے کرتے ہیں فصل کو اگر کیڑے مارنے والی ادویات کی ضرورت نہ بھی ہو تو وہ کسان کو ادویات کے استعمال پر زور دیتے ہیں ۔ہمارے کسان بھائی زیادہ سپرے استعمال کرنے سے ایک تو زمینی اور پانی کی آلودگی میں اضافہ کرتے اور اس کے ساتھ ساتھ خود بھی انہی زہروں کا شکار بنتے ہیں ۔پاکستان میں کیمیائی کیڑا مار ادویات کے کاروبار کرنے والی کمپنیاں صرف پیسہ کمانے کے چکر میں ہیں ۔ اب کسانوں کو چاہئے کہ وہ ہربل پیسٹی سائڈ مطلب پودوں سے بنائی جانے والی کیڑا مار ادویات استعمال کریں۔اس کی مثال نیم کے درخت کی ہے ۔ نیم کے درخت کی بارک اسکے پتے اور بلخصوص بیج میں ایک قدرتی کیمکل پایا جاتا ہے جسکو ایزاڈائییریکٹن کہتے ہیں ۔
جنوبی پنجاب کے کچھ علاقوں میں چھوٹے لیول پے کاشتکاروں نے نیم کے پتوں کے رس کا استعمال کرتے ہوئےکپاس کے کیڑوں کو کنٹرول کیا ہے ۔

 اس کے علاوہمارکیٹ میں نیم آئل  کی ہربل پیسٹی سائیڈ بھی دستیاب ہے جس کو کسان بھائی سبزیوں پر حملہ کرنے والے کیڑوں پر چھڑکاؤ کر سکتے ہیں ۔
سبزیوں پر کیمیائی زہر جیسے کہ ٹرائیزوفاس اور ڈیلٹا میتھرین یہ بہت مضر صحت ہیں ۔ایسی سبزیاں کھانے سے انسانوں میں کینسر، یرقان اور معدے کی بیماریوں ہو سکتی ہیں اور کئی کئی سالوں تک اِن کیمیائی ادویات کا اثر انسانی جسم سے ختم نہیں ہوتا ہے ۔ ان خطرات کی وجہ سے دنیا بھر میں ایسی زرعی پیداوار کی ترجیح دی جا رہی ہے جو کیمیائی آلودگی سے پاک ہوں۔  کسان بھائیوں کو چائئے کہ وہ کیمیائی طریقہ سے   کیڑوں کو کنٹرول کرنے کا طریقہ ترک کر کے نئے طرز کے  کنڑول جیسے کہ  بائیولوجیکل کنٹرول  (کیڑوں کو انکے قدرتی دشمن کا استعمال کرتے ہوئے کنٹرول کرنا)  یہ دو سرے فیزیکل کنڑول جیسے کی گلابی سنڈی کو کنڑول  کرنے کا بہترین طریقہ جنسی اور روشنی کے پھندے استعمال کر کے کرنا ہے ۔  یہ پھندے گلابی سنڈی کے پروانے کو مار کر اسکو  مزید پھیلنے سے کنٹرول کرتے ہیں ۔کسانوں کو چائیے کہ وہ اپنے آپ کو اس قابل بنائیں کہ   کیڑوں کو ماحول دوست طریقوں کاستعمال کرتے ہوئے  کنڑول کریں

Imagine a day without water

Year after year our global population continues to grow, but the supply of fresh water remains the same. Not just the same amount, but the same water. The same drop of water you’ll drink today was here when the dinosaurs roamed the earth. It is our most vital resource—a person can only survive for a few days without water—and yet it can’t be manufactured or produced. Almost all our daily activities depend on access to clean water, but what would a day look like without it?

Imagine: You wake up and shuffle to the bathroom to brush your teeth, only when you turn the faucet on, nothing comes out. Your toilet won’t flush. You can’t make your coffee. Manufacturers sit idle without process water, steam, or cooling systems. There is no water to fight fires. Farmers’ fields go dry, impacting the food supply. A vital resource that people thought would always be there was turned off. As the reality of no water grows so does public concern and unrest, leading to widespread hoarding, rioting, and chaos. People are demanding that local officials do something. But what can they do?

Every organism is made up of water. Water is pumped throughout our bodies to support our organs. Plants and animals cannot exist without it. Two-thirds of the human body is water. Our bodies are really sacks of water walking around on dry land. People can survive for only three or four days without drinking. Camels have found a way around the problem and can survive for long periods without eating or drinking – as much as eight to ten days.

Think on places where there is no life like moon because there is no water. Water is only first think that can determine the settlement of human and withoutsimply water we cannot found the Egyptian civilization. The river Nileprovide adequate amount of water for Egyptian people that is God gifted for irrigation and drinking purposes.

Many people thinks that world has plenty of water as earth is filled up to 75 % with water. The modern man is eye witnessed with the water pressure, scarcity and shortage and thinks of preserving water. People only realize the importance of water when there is drought, during this time water is regulated. If water rationing continuous, people may found them in a worse condition because they rely on water to perform their daily duties.

Have we ever imagined a day without water, where all taps ran dry and we have to wait for specified time to get water for shower and brushing the teeth. Think when there is no electricity, people face acute and panic condition for water supply. This is only shortfall of electricity not shortfall of water. If water shortfall increase then story can be seen from a film “A world without water”. This is an eye opener film. It shows how rich survives and poor tends to die because of dirty water, lack of supply and accessibility. Too sad to see people of certain community being deprived by their own land’s water supply.

Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Pakistan

According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have accelerated to an unprecedented level despite global efforts to cut down emissions. Climate model projections indicate that during the21st century the global surface temperature is likely to rise 0.3°C to 1.7°C (0.5°F to 3.1°F) for their lowest emissions scenario using stringent mitigation, and 2.6°C to 4.8°C (4.7°F to 8.6°F)for business as usual carbon intense emissions.

Pakistan’s total GHG emissions was at 369 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (MtCO2e) in 2012with 45.9% share of energy, 44.8% share of agriculture and livestock sector, 3.9% share of industrial processes, and 2.6% share of land use change for forestry sectors. The energy and agriculture livestock sectors alone account for 90.7% of the total emissions pool and have thus far remained the biggest emitters of GHGs since 1994.

Pakistan ranks relatively low among countries on a per capita GHG emissions basis and ranked at 135th while 31st in total GHG emissions, due to its relatively low level of development and high population but is most vulnerable to climate change. GHG emissions of Pakistan increased a lot in last decades and is expected to increase more in coming decade.

This increase in GHG emissions is causing an increase in temperature. Pakistan’s average annual temperature increased by 0.57°C compared to 0.75°C for South Asia in last century, and average annual precipitation increased by 25%. The warmest year recorded was 2004.Heatwave days per year increased by 31 days in the period 1980 to 2007. Cold waves decreased in north eastern and southern parts, and increased in western and northwestern parts of the country.Sea level increased along the Karachi coast by 1.1 millimeters per year in the past century. Pakistan’s projected temperature increase is expected to be higher than the global average.The projected temperature increase in northern parts will be much higher than the southern parts of the country.The frequency of hot days and hot nights is expected to increase significantly. This will also effect the crop production and decreased per capita Water availability due to higher rates of evaporation caused by increased surface temperature.

In Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on ClimateChange, Pakistan intends to reduce up to 20% of its 2030 projected greenhouse gas emissions,subject to availability of international grants to meet the cumulative abatement costs amounting toapproximately $40 billion. The country’s adaptation needs have been identified to range between$7 billion to $14 billion per year. Stricter laws must be implemented to reduce emissions. All industries must be regulated to reduce their emissions.We have to plant more trees to reduce carbon emissions, as trees absorb CO2. We have to move towards energy conservations as more than 45% greenhouse emissions are associated with this sectors. We need to focus and work hard on agriculture to cut down our emissions. We can also use emissions from agriculture as energy source e.g. biogas etc. We have to cut down our greenhouse emissions to secure our future.

Bagasse as Alternate Energy Source in Pakistan

The energy demand of Pakistan is increasing rapidly; the country is finally exploring alternatives to expand its power production. Pakistan has to rely largely on fossils for their energy production since electricity generation from biomass is considered. Globally biomass is being used on large scale for energy production as an alternative to fossil fuels. Pakistan is among the world’s top-10 sugarcane producers. So, the potential for generating electricity from bagasse is huge (3000 MW).  Currently, there are around 83 sugar mills in Pakistan producing about 3.5 million metric tons of sugar per annum with total crushing capacity 597900 TCD, which can produce approximately 3000 MW during the crop season. Although it seems difficult at that moment, if the government starts to give more attention to sugar industry biomass rather than coal, Pakistan can fulfill its energy needs without negative repercussions or damage to the environment. However, by focusing on growing its alternate energy options such as bagasse-based cogeneration, the country will not only mitigate climate change but also tap the unharnessed energy potential of sugar industry biomass.

Almost all the sugar mills in Pakistan have in-house plants for cogeneration. But the problem is that there are some negative points that must be dealt with properly for effective working of bagasse based power plants. However, due to several reasons, mostly due to financing issues, the sugar mill owners were not able to set up such type of plants. Recently, after financial incentives have been offered and a tariff rate agreed upon between the government and mill owners, these projects are moving ahead. The sugar mill owners are more than willing to supply excess electricity generated from the in-house power plants to the national grid. It would also have saved precious foreign exchange which is spent on imported oil. Renewable energy projects are developed through Carbon Development Mechanism or carbon credit scheme for additional revenue.

Since bagasse is a clean fuel which emits very little carbon emissions it is being financed through the Clean Development Mechanism. High cogeneration power plants are difficult to implement because of higher costs. The payback period for the power plants is unknown which makes the investors reluctant to invest in the high cogeneration project. CDM financing can help improve the rate of return of the project. Bagasse power plants reduce carbon emission in two ways;

  • One by replacing electricity produced from fossil fuels.
  • Secondly if not used as a fuel, it would be otherwise disposed of in an unsafe manner and the methane emissions present in biomass would pollute the environment far more than CO2

However, some sugar mills are opting to use coal as a secondary fuel because the crushing period of sugarcane lasts only 4 months in Pakistan. The plants would have to be run on coal as the main fuel during the non-crushing season. The CDM effect is reduced with the use of coal. If a high cogeneration plant is using even 80% bagasse and 20% of coal, then the carbon credits are almost nullified. If more than 20% of coal is used, then the CDM potential is completely lost because the emissions are increased. However, some sugar mills are not moving ahead with coal as a secondary fuel because separate tariff rates have to be obtained for electricity generation if coal is being used in the mix which is not easily obtained.

The issue that remains to be addressed is that with such huge amounts of investment in these plants, how to use these plants efficiently during the non-crushing period when bagasse is not available. It seems almost counter-productive to use coal on plants which are supposed to be based on biofuels. The use of coal as a secondary fuel in cogeneration power plant is still debatable.