According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have accelerated to an unprecedented level despite global eﬀorts to cut down emissions. Climate model projections indicate that during the21st century the global surface temperature is likely to rise 0.3°C to 1.7°C (0.5°F to 3.1°F) for their lowest emissions scenario using stringent mitigation, and 2.6°C to 4.8°C (4.7°F to 8.6°F)for business as usual carbon intense emissions.
Pakistan’s total GHG emissions was at 369 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (MtCO2e) in 2012with 45.9% share of energy, 44.8% share of agriculture and livestock sector, 3.9% share of industrial processes, and 2.6% share of land use change for forestry sectors. The energy and agriculture livestock sectors alone account for 90.7% of the total emissions pool and have thus far remained the biggest emitters of GHGs since 1994.
Pakistan ranks relatively low among countries on a per capita GHG emissions basis and ranked at 135th while 31st in total GHG emissions, due to its relatively low level of development and high population but is most vulnerable to climate change. GHG emissions of Pakistan increased a lot in last decades and is expected to increase more in coming decade.
This increase in GHG emissions is causing an increase in temperature. Pakistan’s average annual temperature increased by 0.57°C compared to 0.75°C for South Asia in last century, and average annual precipitation increased by 25%. The warmest year recorded was 2004.Heatwave days per year increased by 31 days in the period 1980 to 2007. Cold waves decreased in north eastern and southern parts, and increased in western and northwestern parts of the country.Sea level increased along the Karachi coast by 1.1 millimeters per year in the past century. Pakistan’s projected temperature increase is expected to be higher than the global average.The projected temperature increase in northern parts will be much higher than the southern parts of the country.The frequency of hot days and hot nights is expected to increase significantly. This will also effect the crop production and decreased per capita Water availability due to higher rates of evaporation caused by increased surface temperature.
In Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on ClimateChange, Pakistan intends to reduce up to 20% of its 2030 projected greenhouse gas emissions,subject to availability of international grants to meet the cumulative abatement costs amounting toapproximately $40 billion. The country’s adaptation needs have been identified to range between$7 billion to $14 billion per year. Stricter laws must be implemented to reduce emissions. All industries must be regulated to reduce their emissions.We have to plant more trees to reduce carbon emissions, as trees absorb CO2. We have to move towards energy conservations as more than 45% greenhouse emissions are associated with this sectors. We need to focus and work hard on agriculture to cut down our emissions. We can also use emissions from agriculture as energy source e.g. biogas etc. We have to cut down our greenhouse emissions to secure our future.